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17th Century Biographies

 

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 CYRANO DE BERGERAC (poet, swordsman, musician)

MILADY (The Real Evil Agent of the Cardinal from the pages of History)

GATIEN DE COURTILZ DE SANDRAS (Author of the Memoirs of D'Artagnan)

RALPH NEVILL (English Translator of the Memoirs of D'Artagnan)

ACTUAL MUSKETEER LETTERS (A rare look into the Musketeer past)

DONAREE THE MUSKETEER (New Musketeer Novel by Ted Anthony Roberts)

MUSKETEER STORIES (Started novels by Ted Anthony Roberts)

ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON (His views on Le Vicomte de Bragelonne)

 

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17th Century Biographies

A dedication to those dandies of the past! Just who were the real people behind those fanciful pen strokes of Courtilz, Dumas, Feval and others? Now we have a chance to learn!!

Historical Personality & Biography List

Of the late Sixteenth, the Seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries

 

Anne of Austria: (1601-66) Anne was the daughter of Phillip III of Spain. She married Louis XIII in 1615, and after his death, ruled as Regent from 1643-61 with Mazarin as her prime minister. Modern historians reckon that she was almost certainly Mazarin's lover, but no evidence beyond rumor exists of a secret marriage between the two, as Dumas suggests. She died of breast cancer in 1666, though symptoms of her disease did not appear until 1664. She was supposedly in love with the elder Buckingham in around 1646, but nothing suggests that she was actually his mistress, though many thought so. She was, though, in her youth, one of the greatest beauties of all Europe.

 

Aramis, Henri d’Aramitz: Aramis's real name was Henri d'Aramitz. Like his fictional counterpart, he was a clergyman, a Bernais, and like D'Artagnan, he was a Gascon. He joined the musketeers in 1640, married in 1654, had four children, and died around 1674. He was a nephew to M. de Treville, captain of the musketeers from 1634-1642. He was never, so far as history can tell, involved with the Jesuits. A German named Nickel was Vicar-General from 1652-1664 and from 1664-1681 an Italian named Jean-Paul Oliva headed the order.

 

Athenais, see Montespan, Athenais de Rochechouart de

 

Athos, Armand de Sillegue: Athos was, in real life, Armand de Sillegue d'Athos d'Auteville. He was born around 1615, joined the musketeers at the age of twenty-five, and died in Paris in 1643. He was probably a nobleman, as Athos was, and was a Gascon, as D'Artagnan was, and was also a cousin to M. de Treville, captain of the musketeers from 1634-1642. Dumas claimed, in the preface to The Three Musketeers, to be nothing more than the editor of the memoirs of the Comte de la Fere, presumably the same memoirs Athos is seen working on during the course of The Vicomte de Bragelonne.

 

Barrail, Henri de: Friend of Lauzun.

 

Barbezieux, Louis Le Tellier, marquis de: son of Louvois.

 

Baisemeaux (Besmaux), Francois de Montlezun, sieur de: (1613?-97) Francois de Montlezun joined the musketeers in 1634 where he served with our four heroes' historical counterparts (that is: Athos, Porthos, Aramis, and d'Artagnan). He purchased the post of governor of the Bastile in 1658 for forty thousand livres, not one hundred and fifty thousand as Dumas claims, and held the post until his death. He left a fortune of two million livres.

 

Beaufort: (1616-69) Francois de Vendome, the Duc de Beaufort, was a grandson of Henry IV. and Gabrielle d'Estrees. He was jailed in Vincennes in 1643 for plotting against Mazarin, and he escaped in 1648 (with the aid of Athos and Grimaud according to Twenty Years After). After fighting against the king in the Fronde, he reconciled with the throne in 1653. He died at the siege of Candia.

 

Belliere: (1608-1705) Suzanne de Bruc, Marquis de Plessis-Belliere, called Elise by Dumas, was widowed in 1654. She was very close to Fouquet, and it was she who organized his social engagements, not Madame Fouquet. When Fouquet was arrested in 1661, she was kept under house arrest until 1665.

 

Besmaux: see Baisemeaux.

 

Bergerac – see Cyrano de Bergerac.

 

Bragelonne: Dumas's source for the character Raoul de Bragelonne comes from a slight mention of a suitor of Louise de Valliere's while she was still at Blois. The most likely candidate is Jean de Bragelonne, who was an obscure councilor at the parliament at Rennes. However, there were several other Bragelonnes who were also in the area: Jerome, his son Francois, both soldiers, and Jacques, Gaston d'Orleans's chief steward. Jean was more than likely related to one of these other Bragelonnes, but historians are not certain as to which.

 

Brienne, Henri-Auguste de Lomenie, comte de: confident of Anne of Austria.

 

Buckingham: (1627-87) George Villiers, the second Duke of Buckingham, was the son of the George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who figured so prominently in The Three Musketeers, and Katherine Manners, then the richest heiress in England. After his father's assassination, he was raised alongside the children of Charles I. He was one of the rakes of Charles II's court - hot-tempered, unpredictable, and bisexual. Though he had great influence over the king, his disputes with the monarch landed him in the Tower on four separate occasions. His love for Henrietta-Anne Stuart was well-attested, and often drove him to extremities of behavior.

 

Carlisle, Duchess of – see Percy, Lucy

 

Chanlecy, Anne-Charlotte de: wife of Charles de Batz-Castelmore d’Artagnan.

 

Charles I: King of England after James I, and father of Charles II. Was beheaded by the uprising of the English Civil War under Oliver Cromwell.

 

Charles II: (1630-85) Charles Stuart fled to France in 1646, returned briefly to Scotland in 1651, where he was crowned, was routed by Cromwell in September, and returned to France until Mazarin signed a treaty with Cromwell in 1655 declaring the deposed monarch persona non grata in France. With Monk's support, he finally returned to London as a king in 1661. During his reign there were two wars with the Dutch, the great plague occurred, the Habeas Corpus Act was passed, and the Great Fire swept London. The visit to Mazarin depicted at the beginning of The Vicomte de Bragelonne has its basis in an actual visit paid by the deposed monarch to the Cardinal in Spain in 1659. It was only one of many attempts to gain French support.

 

Chevreuse (Marie Michon), Marie de Rohan, duchesse de: (1600-79) Marie-Aime de Rohan Bazon married the Duc de Chevreuse in 1622. She was a close friend of Anne of Austria, and used many lovers in her plots against Richelieu. Although regularly exiled by Louis XIII, she constantly snuck back to court. She was imprisoned in 1628, escaped in 1637, and fled to Spain, and then England, where she was again briefly imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. She moved to Belgium, and was allowed to return to France by Mazarin in 1643. She was quickly exiled again, but allowed to return under the Amnesty of Reuil in 1649. She continued her intrigues during the Fronde and was named as Raoul de Bragelonne's mother in Twenty Years After.

 

Cinq-Mars, Henri Coffier de Ruze, marquis de: favorite of Louis XIII.

 

Colbert, Jean-Baptiste: (1619-83) Colbert was born in Reins, the son of a minor official and an agent of Richelieu's. He was employed first by the Secretary of State for War, in 1640, and later became Mazarin's intendant in 1655. He purchased a barony in 1658 and entered the aristocracy. Mazarin's words on his deathbed, recommending Colbert to Louis XIV were portrayed by Dumas with accuracy. Mazarin actually said, "I owe you everything, but I pay my debt to your majesty in giving you Colbert." He became Louis's chief minister in 1661 and immediately began administering the reforms necessary after Fouquet's regime. In a decade, he effectively tripled the revenues. Although he did not personally care for him, Dumas's estimation of Colbert's "glorious works" and projects was fairly accurate - in addition to his building projects he also supported many French industries and sent explorers and colonists to America. Although he built the French navy, he eventually became opposed to the wars of Louis XIV, as they thwarted his efforts to keep the budget balanced.

 

Conde: (1621-86) Louis de Bourbon, Duc d'Enghien, became Prince de Conde in 1646, on the death of his father. During the 1640s he distinguished himself in several battles and gained a name for his military skills. He believed, however, that he had not been rewarded sufficiently, and alienated both the queen and Mazarin to the extent that he was jailed for a year in 1650. In retaliation he raised an army to take the king away from his advisors, failed, and left France in 1653. He continued to fight in every campaign against France until his rehabilitation in 1659, after which he retired to his estates. He returned to service in 1668 and died in battle in 1674.

 

Courtilz, Gatien de, de Sandras: former soldier turned writer and biographer. Among his 100 or so writings includes the famous “Memoirs of Monsieur d’Artagnan” and “The Memoirs of Rochefort.”

 

Cyrano de Bergerac, Hercule-Savinien: famous poet and duelist, immortized by Edmund Rostand in the late 1800’s.

 

Danger, Eustache – see Martin, Etienne

 

D'Artagnan: Charles de Batz-Ogier Castelmore, sieur d'Artagnan: was born in Lupiac around 1623. He came to Paris in about 1640, joining the Guards under Monsieur des Essarts, and became a Musketeer in about 1643-46. During the years 1646-1657, when the musketeers were disbanded in actual history, Mazarin used him as a courier. He was appointed second-in-command to the absentee Captain-Lieutenant of the musketeers (a nephew of Mazarin's who had no interest in the work) in 1657, when the company was reformed. Although he only held the rank of Lieutenant, he was the actual commander of the troops. He married in 1659, had two sons, and separated from his wife in 1665. It was indeed the real D'Artagnan who, in 1661, arrested Fouquet, though not nearly as dramatically as Dumas's depiction, and escorted him first to Angers, and later, after the former minister's trial, to Pignerol. He became Captain-Lieutenant of the musketeers in 1667, in other words, the commander of the musketeers, as the rank of Captain-Commander was reserved for the king himself. During Louis XIV’s invasion of the Dutch Republic, he was briefly governor of Lille in 1672. He was killed at the siege of Maastricht in March of 1673. He never lost his Gascon accent, which is detectable even in his letters. His spelling was atrocious even by the standards of the time. Dumas bases his character largely on his own imagination and from another fictional work from 1700 entitled The Memoirs of M. d'Artagnan by Courtilz de Sandras, from which he got the basis for the first few chapters of The Three Musketeers. Dumas never, however, read beyond the first volume of Sandras's work, and vastly altered the material he did read, making it uniquely his own. The character of Milady also comes from Sandras's writings, wherein D'Artagnan encounters a mysterious English noblewoman known only as Miledi.

 

Dauger, Eustache – see Martin, Etienne

 

Du Junca, Etienne: King’s lieutenant at the Bastille.

 

Fouquet, Nicolas: (1615-80) Raised to power by Mazarin, Nicholas Fouquet was far from the brilliant administrator portrayed by Dumas. He built a vast fortune through blatant abuses of power during his tenure as superintendent of France's finances, and generally dispersed that fortune in the construction of his mansion at Vaux and in his role as a famous patron of the arts. His generous style of management won him admiration, but the members of the court generally resented his obvious corruption. Louis XIV had Fouquet arrested in 1661, more probably from fear of his influence rather than jealousy, though Fouquet did possibly take some liberties with the king's mistress during a royal visit. Belle-Isle was never given to the king; Louis sent a garrison to occupy it after Fouquet had been arrested. Fouquet sold his post of procureur-general to Louis for 1.4 million livres, not Vanel. The real D'Artagnan, Charles de Batz-Castlemore, arrested him in September and escorted him to Pignerol after his three-year trial. Dumas largely altered the character of Fouquet from his historical counterpart, turning him into a Romantic cavalier who had all the qualities Dumas himself admired, and making him a foil for the somewhat lackluster Colbert.

 

Gaston d’Orleans:  - see Orleans, Gaston d'

 

Grande Mademoiselle, Anne-Marie-Louise d’Orleans: willful cousin of Louis XIV.

 

Guiche: (1637-73) Armand de Gramont, Comte de Guiche, was a soldier, adventurer. He was part of the entourage of Philippe d'Orleans, where many reckoned him the handsomest man at court. He was known for being vain, overbearing, and somewhat contemptuous, but many overlooked these flaws. It is generally accepted that he became the lover of Henrietta d'Orleans, but for a time he also paid court to Louise de la Valliere. Guiche was, however, not sufficiently enamored with Louise to challenge the king's affections, and, according to Madame de La Fayette (whose memoirs were one of Dumas's major sources), he "gave her up and even quarreled with her, using her very rudely." He was exiled in 1662 for attempting to come between Louis and Louise. He then fought against the Turks in Poland, against the English for the Dutch, and eventually returned to France in 1669. He returned to court in 1671.

 

Gourville: (1625-1703) Jean Herault de Gourville participated in the Fronde before coming to work for Fouquet. After Fouquet's arrest he was sentenced to death, but he escaped to Brussels, where he lived by less than honest means.

 

Hautefort, Marie de: lady-in-waiting to Anne of Austria.

 

Henrietta-Anne Stuart: (1644-1670) daughter of Charles I and Henrietta-Maria (Henriette in the text), was left behind at Exeter when her mother fled to France, but her governess smuggled her to France in 1646, where she was raised Catholic. The "privations" which she supposedly endured in France were greatly exaggerated by Dumas. With a reputation for cleverness and beauty, she was married to Philippe d'Orleans in 1661. Shortly afterwards, the obvious attentions of both Buckingham and De Guiche did indeed arouse her husband's jealousy, leading to both Buckingham and De Guiche being persuaded to leave the court. Their marriage, due to Philippe's homosexuality and excessive jealousy, was far short of successful. Before the king took La Valliere as his mistress, he was quite captivated by Henrietta, and it wasn't until the monarch's attentions shifted to La Valliere that she became receptive to De Guiche's advances. In 1670 she was sent to England to persuade Charles II to sign the Treaty of Dover, which he did, and was poisoned to death on her return.

 

Joseph, Father (Pere Joseph): known as his grey eminence. Right hand man of Richelieu.

 

Jussac, Claude, comte de: expert duelist in Cardinal Richelieu’s Guards.

 

Lambert, John: (1619-83) John Lambert, though trained as a lawyer, turned out to be one of the greatest soldiers of the English Civil War. He played a large roll in installing Cromwell as Lord Protector, but later turned against him. He led disgruntled soldiers against Richard Cromwell, and in October 1659 he dismissed the "Rump" Parliament, effectively taking control of the country himself. Monk defeated him in 1661 and he was sent to the Tower in 1662. He was later banished to Guernsey, where he lived out his life in confinement.

 

La Porte, Pierre de: (1603-80) Pierre de la Porte entered the queen's service in 1621. He helped her carry on correspondence with the Spanish court and was imprisoned for "treason" in 1637. When Anne of Austria assumed the Regency in 1643 he was returned to favor. He became Louis XIV's valet de chambre in 1645. His memoirs were one of Dumas's major sources of historical research.

 

La Reynie, Gabriel Nicolas: Paris chief of police.

 

La Valliere: (1644-1710) Francoise-Louise de la Baume le Blanc, later the Duchesse de la Valliere, was born near Amboise and became part of the entourage of the Duchesse d'Orleans at Blois. There it was rumored that a young man, later identified as Jean de Bragelonne, was in love with her. The affair did not progress far, but Dumas used it as his basis for the character of Raoul de Bragelonne. After the death of Gaston d'Orleans, she moved to Paris, where the Duchesse de Choisy proposed her as lady of honor to the new Madame (Henrietta). Soon afterwards the king took an interest in her, and she was his mistress from 1661-67. They had four children together. She was not considered terribly beautiful - she was slim, tall, and had blue eyes and bad teeth. She limped slightly, due to a badly set broken leg, but was reported to dance well. In 1670, after Madame de Montespan had replaced her, she retired from court life. She took the veil in 1674. The Oxford World's Classics edition of Louise de la Valliere, 1998, has her portrait on the cover. Many of the episodes between Louise and Louis, though perhaps chronologically displaced or condensed, were portrayed very accurately by Dumas, including the flight to the convent, the decision of the king and Madame to pretend that he was in love with her, and the king riding beside her carriage during the promenades.

 

La Voisin, Catherine Montvoisin: notorious poisoner.

 

Lauzun, comte de: captain of the royal bodyguard.

 

Le Tellier, Michel: Louvois’ father, minister of Louis XIV.

 

Lionne, Hughes de: minister for foreign affairs under Louis XIV.

 

Lorraine: (1643-1702) Philippe de Lorraine was called the Chevalier de Lorraine because he once intended to join the Order of Malta. He was the favorite of Philippe d'Orleans for many years, and he received military and ecclesiastical preference as a result. Like Philippe, he, too, was homosexual. He was heir to the Duchy of Lorraine, but stripped of his title in 1662. He protested, and was ordered to leave France. He assumed the title of Duke in 1675, and was recognized by every other European nation besides France.

 

Louis XIII: king of France, son of king Henri IV., ruled from 1610 until his death in 1643.

 

Louis XIV: (1638-1715) Louis de Bourbon, "The Sun King," assumed the throne in 1643 after the death of Louis XIII. Anne of Austria ruled during his infancy, with Gaston d'Orleans as her Lieutenant-Governor and Mazarin as her first minister. Mazarin managed to not only preserve the monarchy through the Fronde, but also strengthen it considerably. Upon Mazarin's death in March, 1661, Louis determined to rule personally. With Colbert's assistance, he removed the corrupt Fouquet and declared himself the Sun King the following year. His rule of 72 years was the longest of any European monarch. Later in his reign, his wars threatened to bankrupt the state, as well as his legendary excesses, such as the great palace at Versailles. He is famous for the quote, "Je suis l'etat," meaning, "I am the State."

 

Louvois, Francois Michel Le Tellier, marquis de: minister of war under Louis XIV.

 

Madame: The title customarily given to the wife of the king's brother. Until 1660 it was given to Gaston d'Orleans's wife, Marguerite. After Gaston's death, it fell to Henrietta of England, and Marguerite was referred to as the "Dowager Madame." See also "Monsieur."

 

Maintenon, Madame de: mistress, later wife, of Louis XIV.

 

Malicorne: (1626-94) Germain Texier was the Baron de Malicorne. Although Dumas portrays him as the son of a syndic, he was in fact a squire of the Duc de Guise by 1648. He was also the lover of Mademoiselle de Pons. He married, in 1665, not Montalais, but a daughter from the first marriage of Saint-Remy, Louise de la Valliere's step-father.

 

Mancini, Marie de: (1640-1715) Marie de Mancini captured the young Louis XIV's heart in 1658, but he was forced to abandon her in favor of a political marriage to the Spanish Infanta Maria-Theresa. Her sister, Olympe (1639-1708), later became one of Louis's mistresses. Dumas misplaces the chronology slightly; Mazarin's nieces were removed from court in 1659. The meeting between Louis and Marie portrayed by Dumas was an amalgamation of two meetings, both of which occurred in 1659.

 

Mancini, Olympe, duchesse de Soissons: a niece of Mazarin.

 

Manicamp: (1628?-1708) Louis de Madallan de Lesparre was the Seigneur of Manicamp, and later the Comte de Manicamp. He was a soldier, who fought with Conde at Lens, and a few other battles. He lost an arm at Charenton in 1652. Dumas took the name for one of his characters, but preserved nothing else.

 

Maria-Theresa: (1638-83) Maria-Theresa of Austria was the daughter of Philip IV of Spain. She married Louis XIV on June 6, 1660, to promote a French-Spanish alliance wrought by Mazarin. The king's constant infidelities caused her a great deal of anguish, as she was truly in love with Louis XIV. In real life she was quite pious and preferred to devote most of her life to good works. Dumas found her quite boring, and relegates her to a minor character.

 

Marie Michon - see Chevreuse, Madame de.

 

Martin, Etienne alias Eustache Dauger/Danger: fixer, poisoner, valet, and one of the suggested Man in the Iron Mask.

 

Mattioli, Ercole: Italian count who double-crossed Louis XIV. One of the first suggested Man in the Iron Mask; but later proved impossible.

 

Mazarin, Cardinal Jules: (1602-61) Jules Mazarin was a diplomat in the service of the Pope when he was sent to negotiate with Richelieu in 1630. He became Richelieu's protege, and was naturalized French in 1639. In 1641 Richelieu had him named a cardinal as well as his own successor. It is generally accepted that he became Anne of Austria's lover, though not, as Dumas suggests, her secret husband. He was not, actually, an ordained priest. He raised taxes, aroused the jealousy of the nobles, and was an Italian - all of which made him extremely unpopular with nearly every class of the French people. Most considered him to be extremely selfserving and quite greedy. His private fortune is estimated at between 13 and 40 million livres. His diplomatic skills, however, were considerable. Abroad he furthered French interests in southern Germany by ending the Thirty Years War in 1648 and allied France with Cromwell in 1654. At home he maneuvered the monarchy through the Fronde, leaving it stronger as a result. The priest who attended him on his deathbed insisted that he died in the true faith, though he was reckoned during his life more of a philosopher than a Christian.

 

Medici, Marie de: mother of Louis XIII and wife of Henri IV.

 

Miledi – see Percy, Lucy

 

Michon, Marie: see Chevreuse, Madame de.

 

Milady – see Percy, Lucy.

 

Milady de Winter – nemesis to d’Artagnan and the Three Musketeers. See Percy, Lucy.

 

Mirabeau, Honore-Gabriel, comte de: revolutionary orator.

 

Monk: (1608-70) George Monk was a career soldier who served under Cromwell and, as a reward, was made governor of Scotland in 1654. In 1659, as disorder in England was rising steadily, he decided to step into the fray, and marched south in January, 1661, with 6,000 men. He arrived in London five weeks later, unopposed, but without revealing his motives. His decision to reinstate the Stuarts was probably influenced by popular opinion, though his true motives still baffle historians, and he met the returning King Charles II at Dover on May 23, 1661. Charles made him the Duke of Albermarle and gave him the highest offices in the state. Monk then retired to private life, but served as a naval commander in later wars with the Dutch.

Monsieur: The court title of the king's brother. Gaston d'Orleans held it until his death in 1660. The title fell to Philip d'Anjou, who also assumed the title of Duc d'Orleans.

 

Montalais: Nicole-Anne-Constance de Montalais, called Aure by Dumas, was, like La Valliere, a maid of honor at the court of Gaston d'Orleans. In 1661 she entered the service of Henrietta d'Orleans, and shared an apartment with La Valliere. She became La Valliere's confidante, and used the information thus garnered to her own ends. She was known as a notorious schemer, and the historical record does indicate that she was in love, at least for a time, with a man named Malicorne.

 

Montespan, Francoise-Athenais de Rochechouart de Mortemart: (1641-1707) Francoise-Athenais de Rochechouart de Mortemart was born at the Chateau de Tonnay-Charente. She was a maid of honor at the marriage of Philip d'Orleans and Henrietta Stuart in March, 1661. In 1663 she married the Duc de Montespan et d'Antin, and replaced La Valliere as the king's mistress in 1667.

 

Montespan, marquis de: husband of Athenais de Montespan.

 

Montvoisin, Catherine – see La Voisin.

 

Orleans, Gaston d': (1608-60) Gaston-Jean-Baptiste de France, Duc d'Orleans, was the younger brother of Louis XIII. He regularly plotted against Richelieu, thereby indirectly against his brother, the king. He became Lieutenant-Governor of the Kingdom when Anne of Austria assumed the Regency in 1643. He supported Anne during the first Fronde, but turned against her in the second, for which he was exiled to Blois in 1652. He reconciled with the court in 1659. Aramis judged him as a man "void of courage and honesty," a view shared by his contemporaries. The Cardinal de Retz said of him that he had "everything a gentleman should have, except courage." His presence in the novel is entirely fictional; he died in February, 1660.

 

Orleans, Philippe d': (1640-71) Philippe, called Philip by Dumas, was the second son of Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, and Louis XIV's younger brother. He was Duc d'Anjou until 1660 when his uncle, Gaston d'Orleans died, leaving the title of Duc d'Orleans and the court title of "Monsieur" to him. He married Henrietta Stuart of England in 1661, but his homosexuality and jealousy ensured that the marriage was less than ideal, to say the least.

 

Ormesson, Olivier Lefevre d’: judge in the Paris Parliament.

 

Pellisson: (1640-1701) Paul Pellisson (called Pelisson by Dumas) was part of Fouquet's literary circle and a member of the French Academy. Disfigured by smallpox in his youth, his ugliness brought him a sort of fame. After Fouquet's arrest, Pellisson wrote quite spiritedly in the defense of the former Superintendent of Finances. He was rewarded for his loyalty with five years in the Bastile. He subsequently regained the royal favor, and became the Historiographer Royal.

 

Percy, Lucy: English aristocrat, Richelieu’s spy, and known as Miledi.

 

Peyroz, Marguerite de: Besmaux’s wife.

 

Philippe d'Orleans - see Orleans, Philippe d'

 

Porte, La, Pierre de: - see La Porte.

 

Porthos, Isaac de Portau: born at Pau in Bearn, Porthos sought his fortune in Paris at about the same time as Athos, Aramis and d’Artagnan, but left in about 1650.

 

Prignani, Abbe Guiseppe: Catholic priest and secret agent.

 

Renneville, Constantin de: prisoner in the Bastille.

 

Reynie, La, Gabriel Nicolas – see La Reynie: Paris chief of police.

 

Richelieu: (1585-1642) Although he does not appear in The Vicomte de Bragelonne, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu, is mentioned several times. He was an admirer of Machiavelli and, under the reign of Louis XIII, he became the most powerful man in France. He greatly strengthened France both at home and abroad, and named Mazarin as his successor shortly before his death. In The Three Musketeers, it is he who lays the snare for Anne of Austria involving the famous diamond studs given to the Duke of Buckingham. D'Artagnan and his three friends rescue the queen from this embarrassing predicament.

 

Rochefort, comte de: right hand man of Richelieu in the novels of Dumas. Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras wrote his memoirs, where he reveals that his own step-mother had the brand of the fleur de lis on her shoulder – the brand of a common criminal.

 

Saint-Aignan: (1610-87) Francois de Beauvillier, the Comte de SaintAignan, was a former governor of the Touraine. He finally realized his ambition, mentioned by Dumas, of joining the French Academy in 1663. Before becoming First Gentleman to the King's Bedchamber, he was part of Gaston d'Orleans's military household. Though quite a few years Louis XIV's senior, he became the young king's chief purveyor of pleasures.

 

Saint-Remy, Francoise le Prevot de la Coutelaye: became Madame de SaintRemy following her third marriage. Her first was to a man named Besnard, a councilor of the Parliament at Rennes. Her second marriage was to Laurent de la Baume le Blanc, lord of the manor of La Valliere. He was Louise de la Valliere's father. Laurent died in 1651, and in 1655 she married Jacques Couravel, Marquis de Saint-Remy, First Chamberlain to Gaston d'Orleans. After Gaston's death, they both moved to Paris.

 

Treville: (1598-1672) Arnaud-Jean du Peyrer, Comte de Troisvilles (written and pronounced Treville) does not appear in The Vicomte de Bragelonne, but he was D'Artagnan's (both the real and fictional) predecessor as Captain of the Musketeers. He was a career soldier and, like D'Artagnan, a Gascon. He was appointed Captain-Lieutenant of the Musketeers in 1634 (the rank of Captain-General was reserved for the king), and was exiled in 1642 for opposing Richelieu. Mazarin disbanded the musketeers in 1646 (an historical fact ignored by Dumas), and Treville retired to Foix as its governor. In The Three Musketeers (which adds about 10 years to the ages of the historical counterparts), it was in Treville's office that the first meeting between D'Artagnan, Athos, Porthos, and Aramis occurred.

 

Troisvilles – see Treville.

 

Valliere, La – see La Valliere.

 

Vanel, Anne-Marguerite: (1644-1703) Vanel was the daughter of Claude Vanel (a magistrate in the Paris Parliament) and became the wife of Jean Coiffer (a member of the Royal Audit Office) in 1654. Contemporaries described her as a "dainty and extremely pretty young woman with a lively and very witty turn of mind." She was Fouquet's mistress during the 1650s, and later transferred her affections to Colbert. Her high spirits annoyed Colbert, and he passed her off to his brother.

 

Vardes, count de – see Wardes.

 

Voisin, La, Catherine Montvoisin – see La Voisin.

 

Wardes: (1620-88) Francois-Rene Crespin du Bec was the Marquis de Vardes, and a noted schemer and bold liar. Some women, though, including Madame de Motteville, found him charming. Dumas creates two characters out of the historical De Vardes. The father plays a prominent part in The Three Musketeers and Twenty Years After, and the son in The Vicomte de Bragelonne, though they were, in reality, the same man. He was named Governor of Aigues-Mortes in 1660 and was banished there a few years later following a court scandal. Although a favorite of Louis XIV, he got entangled in a plot by Olympe Mancini (then the Comtesse de Soissons) to avenge her sister, Marie, whom the king had abandoned in favor of his political marriage to Maria-Theresa of Spain. He remained in AiguesMortes for 17 years.

 

More to come . . . .

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 NEW MUSKETEER NOVEL NOW AVAILABLE TO BUY!

CLICK HERE for Plot Details, and to Read the Introduction and First Three Chapters!

 AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE FROM VARIOUS ONLINE BOOKSTORES, INCLUDING Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble, Books-A-Million & GoHastings.com

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Product Details (From Amazon.com)

  • Paperback: 350 pages
  • Publisher: CreateSpace (November 30, 2009)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1449913172
  • ISBN-13: 978-1449913175
  • Product Dimensions: 9 x 6 x 0.9 inches
  • Shipping Weight: 1.3 pounds

 

READ WHAT OTHERS HAVE TO SAY ABOUT DONAREE:

"Nicely done. I really enjoyed the history in the introduction and the duel is well written. Best of luck with the novel!" ~ Author David Lee Summers, author of five books: Vampires of the Scarlet Order, The Solar Sea, and the "Old Star" science fiction series: The Pirates of Sufiro, Children of the Old Stars, and Heirs of the New Earth. www.davidleesummers.com

"Very exciting read! Felt like I was there witnessing the action!" ~ Candle Artist Jfay,
www.studio3bonline.com

"I really enjoyed the humour and really laughed, not at Monsieur de la Donaree but with Monsieur de la Donaree! I dont know if you wrote it in this spirit but if you had a bit of Molière in you, I would not be surprised! He knew how to study people and would turn situations into a comic play! I laughed out loud, this is a gem! Not only de la Donaree is a fine sword, he has also a fine nose when it comes to pinpoint personalities, I'm talking about the Inkeeper and his situation with the wife here!! The second part is indeed in pure swashbuckling spirit, in rhythm and enthusiasm! And the end is a cliff-hanger! The beginning is "cocasse" (funny) as they might have said then in Gascony, and witty! Indeed Alexandre Dumas had a sense of humour too and satirically created at least one of his character ( in another book) to a character made up by Molière in one of his comic play. And Molière also took his inspiration from Dumas' s Musketeers and "The Man in the Iron Mask." I liked it! I had fun while reading this chapter about Monsieur de la Donaree, as while following the spirit of the Musketeers you gave a contemporary touch to the text!" ~ Artist Nicole Marques,
www.myspace.com/nicolemarques

"Hurrah, Ted! I gleefully await the next installment! LOVE the romantic stuff! Bring it on! There are few things in this world I like better than a hot Viscount. Keep going, Ted! Bravo! Keep writing! I can't wait to read more! But it is par for the course as I am also a writer. Keep in touch!" ~ Author Genella de Grey, author of "Remember Me."
www.genelladegrey.com

"Wow - What a wonderful beginning. As a whole, you have a unique way of writing & you captivated me by a few sentences peaking my interest to continue. For instance: ...hazed by the early morning mist...I love it! I look forward to reading the next chapter. You've gained my interest. That was impresive & informative. You've still got the hook in & I'm dangling to hear more. Thanks for the sneak peak." ~ Aspiring Author R.F.Taylor: Rianna

"Well done. Chapter One entices the reader craving more. I will look for The Adventures of Monsieur de La Donaree the Musketeer on the web. Keep up the excellent writing..." ~
Ferf