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From the dawn of time until the birth of the Roman Empire.


Also known as the Biblical Period, the Ancient peoples of our world were unique indeed - and very interesting to learn about! As long as there have been soldiers in this world, swashbuckling has existed! Let's learn about those ancient swashbucklers and the world that had surrounded them!












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File:Cole Thomas The Garden of Eden 1828.jpg 

The antediluvian (or pre-diluvian) period  – meaning "before the deluge"  – is the period referred to in the Bible between the Creation of the Earth and the Deluge (flood). The story takes up chapters 1-6 (excluding the flood narrative) of Genesis.

In Christian theology, the antediluvian period begins with the Creation according to Genesis and ends with the destruction of all life on the earth except those saved with Noah in the Ark 1,656 years later. The elements of the narrative include some of the best-known stories in the bible - the Creation itself, Adam and Eve, and Cain and Abel - followed by the genealogies tracing the descendants of Cain and Seth, the third son of Adam and Eve. (These genealogies provide the framework for the biblical chronology, in the form A begat B in his Xth year).

The Bible speaks of this era as being a time of great wickedness. There were Gibborim (giants) in the earth in those days as well as Nephilim; some translations identify the two as one and the same. The Gibborim were unusually powerful; Genesis calls them "heroes of old, men of renown;" (Enoshi Ha Shem). The antediluvian period ended when God sent the Flood to wipe out all life except Noah, his family, and the animals they took with them. Nevertheless, the Nephilim (literally meaning 'fallen ones', from the Hebrew root n-f-l 'to fall') reappear much later in the Biblical narrative, in Numbers 13:31-33 (where the spies sent forth by Moses report that there were Nephilim or "giants" in the Promised Land).

Antediluvian civilizations are civilizations which existed prior to Great flood of Noah. Humans had lived on Earth for close to 1500 years before God sent the flood and if the fossil record is indeed the result of this event, then one might reasonably expect evidence of antediluvian civilizations to be found deep in the strata, although some argue that when God said that He would "wipe mankind ... from the face of the earth" (Genesis 6:7 ), He meant that He would leave no trace.

It is believed by many creationists that humans originated at a high and noble state, and later declined. Many propose advanced stages of technological development were reached before the great flood. Such presuppositions are usually based on the Biblical genealogy, which states that ancient people lived to approximately 10 times our current life span. Also it is frequently mentioned that Adam and Eve would likely possess higher than normal intelligence since they were created as adults, with knowledge that subsequent humans obtain from their parents. Another theory states that the antediluvian race called the Nephilim was superior to other humans in this respect.

All accounts of the Great flood from civilizations around the world indicate that there were indeed civilizations before the flood. However, as a result of the destruction during the flood and the passage of time, the remaining evidence is scanty. As a result of the flood, the surface of the Earth was ripped up and was redeposited as hundreds of feet of sediment, and very little of the antediluvian horizon has been exposed. It is also problematic that much of the scientific community is quick to dismiss any artifacts that dispute their presupposed interpretation of the fossil record. Nevertheless, any truly advanced civilization would have left durable traces or constructions that would likely surface during excavations or by erosion. Relatively insightful accounts can be drawn from the Bible, apocrypha, and ancient Babylonian and Greek accounts of antediluvian civilizations.

The Book of Genesis provides only a skeletal description of antediluvian civilization. It reports that people routinely lived what is by today's standards extraordinary lengths of time, from 800-900 years each. It reports the founding of cities such as the founding of Enoch by Cain. Further, it reports that people at that time became extremely corrupt and violent, and ultimately were destroyed by God for their wickedness and violence.


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The Sumerian King List is an ancient manuscript originally recorded in the Sumerian language, listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and neighboring dynasties, their supposed reign lengths, and the locations of "official" kingship. It has been suggested that this manuscript could serve to support certain details that are set forth in the Book of Genesis, where, similarly, individuals live for an extraordinary length of time prior to a great flood, and then for a lesser amount of time after said flood. Kingship was believed to have been handed down by the gods, and could be transferred from one city to another, reflecting perceived hegemony in the region.

Although the primal kings are historically unattested, this does not preclude their possible correspondence with historical rulers who were later mythicized. Some Assyriologists view the predynastic kings as a later fictional addition. Only one ruler listed is known to be female: Kug-Bau "the (female) tavern-keeper", who alone accounts for the Third Dynasty of Kish.

The earliest listed ruler whose historicity has been archaeologically verified is En-me-barage-si of Kish, ca. 2600 BC. Reference to this individual in the Epic of Gilgamesh has led to speculation that Gilgamesh himself may be historical.

Three dynasties are notably excluded from the list: the Larsa dynasty, which vied for power with the (included) Isin dynasty during the Isin-Larsa period; and the two dynasties of Lagash, which respectively preceded and ensued the Akkadian Empire, when Lagash exercised considerable influence in the region. Lagash in particular is known directly from archaeological artifacts dating from ca. 2500 BC.

For lack of a more accurate source, the list is central to the chronology of the 3rd millennium BC. However, the fact that many of the dynasties listed reigned simultaneously from varying localities makes it difficult to reproduce a strict linear chronology.

The oldest extant inscriptions containing the list, such as the Weld-Blundell Prism, date from the early 2nd millennium BC. The later Babylonian and Assyrian king lists that were based on it still preserved the earliest portions of the list well into the 3rd century BC, when Berossus popularized the list in the Hellenic world. :

Other ancient cultures have legendary periods or ancient kings lists that support the vast ages of the patriarchs. For example, the Sumerian kings list has eight kings whose lives span a great period of time. Then, accordingly, the Flood came. Removing Enoch, who was translated, and Noah, who survived the Flood, these eight could easily “match up” with remaining pre-Flood patriarchs.

Many of the ancient people listed in the Bible’s genealogies lived very long lives. Methuselah holds the title of oldest-known man at 969 years old. After he died, the Flood came.

After the Flood, we see the ages of these men declining. For example, Noah lived to be 950 years old, Shem to 600, Shelah to 433, and Abraham to 175.

 PatriarchAgeBible reference
1Adam930Genesis 5:4
2Seth912Genesis 5:8
3Enosh905Genesis 5:11
4Cainan910Genesis 5:14
5Mahalalel895Genesis 5:17
6Jared962Genesis 5:20
7Enoch365 (translated)Genesis 5:23
8Methuselah969Genesis 5:27
9Lamech777Genesis 5:31
10Noah950Genesis 9:29
11Shem600Genesis 11:10
12Arphaxad438Genesis 11:12
13Shelah433Genesis 11:14
14Eber464Genesis 11:16
15Peleg239Genesis 11:18
16Reu239Genesis 11:20
17Serug230Genesis 11:22
18Nahor148Genesis 11:24
19Terah205Genesis 11:32
20Abram (Abraham)175Genesis 25:7
21Isaac180Genesis 35:28
22Jacob (Israel)  

Patriarchs from Adam to Israel (Jacob)


The Sumerian King List:


The following is the translation by Jacobsen of his critical edition of the Sumerian text of the antediluvian section of the King List together with a few selected lines of the postdiluvian section for comparison (see the text following for explanation of the italics, bold and underlining):

1 When the kingship was lowered from heaven
the kingship was in Eridu(g).
(In) Eridu(g) A-lulim(ak) (became) king
and reigned 28,800 years;
5 Alalgar reigned 36,000 years.
2 kings
reigned its 64,800 years.
I drop (the topic) Eridu(g);
its kingship to Bad-tibira(k)
10 was carried.
(In) Bad-tibira(k) En-men-lu-Anna(k)
reigned 43,200 years;
reigned 28,800 years;
15 divine Dumu-zi(d), a shepherd, reigned 36,000 years.
3 kings
reigned its 108,000 years.
I drop (the topic) Bad-tibira(k);
its kingship to Larak was carried.
20 (In) Larak En-sipa(d)-zi(d)-Anna(k)
reigned its 28,800 years.
1 king
reigned its 28,800 years.
I drop (the topic) Larak;
25 its kingship to Sippar was carried.
(In) Sippar En-men-dur-Anna(k)
became king and reigned 21,000 years.
1 king
reigned its 21,000 years.
30 I drop (the topic) Sippar;
its kingship to Shuruppak was carried.
(In) Shuruppak Ubar-Tutu(k)
became king and reigned 18,600 years.
1 king
35 reigned its 18,600 years.
5 cities were they;
8 kings
reigned their 241,200 years.
The Flood swept thereover.
40 After the Flood had swept thereover,
when the kingship was lowered from heaven
the kingship was in Kish.

[end of the antediluvian section]


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Article from Ark Discovery:

From the archeaology of Ron Wyatt.

"And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat." ~ Genesis 8:4 

"Upon the mountains of Ararat."  Many explorers have looked on Mt. Ararat for the remains of Noah's Ark.  The Bible however,  does not say that Noah's Ark landed on Mt. Ararat, it says that the Ark landed upon the mountains of Ararat (mountains, plural). An examination of the Hebrew manuscripts of Genesis reveals actual wordage is that Noah's Ark landed upon the mountains of Urartu (which is the whole mountainous region in far eastern Turkey).

Greater and Lesser Mount Ararat


Would the Ark have Survived on Mt. Ararat ?

The Turkish military has been training their commandos on Mt. Ararat for many years and have thoroughly explored the mountain.

At the top of Mt. Ararat are ever moving glaciers which continually flow and grind upon everything in their path.

Also to be considered are the volcanic eruptions which have occurred on Mt. Ararat.  One of the most recent eruptions in the early 1800's resulted in the formation of the Ohura Gorge.  The Ohura Gorge is a blown out area in the North West side of Mt. Ararat, similar to the blown out side of Mt. St. Helens in Washington State, USA.  As strange as it may seem, this blown out area has been the site in which most of the exploration for Noah's Ark on Mt. Ararat has been conducted.


September 1960
Twenty seven year-old Ron Wyatt, along with thousands of other people, read the following article in Life Magazine about a strange boat-shaped formation at an elevation of about 6,350 feet, in the mountains of Ararat. Not on Mt. Ararat, but in the mountains of Ararat, about 12 miles from the summit of Mt. Ararat.

Excerpt from Life magazine...
"While routinely examining aerial photos of his country, a Turkish army captain suddenly gaped at the picture shown above. There, on a mountain 20 miles south of Mt. Ararat, the biblical landfall of Noah's Ark, was a boat-shaped form about 500 feet long. The captain passed on the word. Soon an expedition including American scientists set out for the site.

At 7,000 feet, in the midst of crevasses and landslide debris, the explorers found a clear, grassy area shaped like a ship and rimmed with steep, packed-earth sides. Its dimensions are close to those given in Genesis: 'The length of the ark shall be 300 cubits, the breadth of it 50 cubits, and the height of it 30 cubits,' that is, 450x75x45 feet. A quick two-day survey revealed no sign that the object was man made. Yet a scientist in the group says nothing in nature could create such a symmetrical shape. A thorough excavation may be made another year to solve the mystery."


The Search for Noah's Ark

August 1977

Ron Wyatt traveled to Turkey and personally examined the "boat shaped object" shown in the Life Magazine article. Ron finds large stones, identical in design to smaller drogue anchor stones.

Photo of Ron Wyatt (in the bright colored pants, and sporting a white beard), and is leaning upon a "Drogue Stone," or "Anchor Stone," which was, at one time, attached to Noah's Ark. Mount Ararat can be seen in the background.

The Anchor Stones had specially designed holes, traditionally found on drogue anchors. Larger on one side,  smaller on the other side, larger still in the middle. The idea being that you tie a knot on the end of a big rope and feed it through the hole in the anchor stone so that it catches on the small side. When the anchor is put in the water, the rope swells up in the middle of the hole and prevents the rope from wearing into.

Drogue anchors are designed to drag in the water, stabilize a ship and keep it perpendicular to the oncoming waves; not to prevent it from moving.

This type of drogue anchors, which have broken away, are sometimes found on the floor of the Mediterranean and other seas as they were common to ancient ships.  

Ron also observed crosses on the anchor stones.

Some of the anchors seem to have had eight original crosses carved upon them.  These crosses are Byzantine style which indicates that someone after 300 A.D. recognized these anchorstones as having a connection with Noah's Ark and carved the crosses at that time.



An earthquake causes the soil surrounding the "boat shaped object" to fall away, exposing as much as thirty feet of the sides.  


A Giant Shipwreck

August 11, 1979

Ron Wyatt returned to the site.  What he saw, after the earthquake "looked like a giant shipwreck." 

"Boat Shaped Object" after the Earthquake
Evenly spaced indentations could be seen all the way around the object, which "looked like decaying rib timbers".

The earthquake had also cracked the object from "stem to stern," and Ron was able to take samples from deep within.

Samples of material outside of the object were also taken for comparison.

Ron measured the object finding it to be 515 feet long.  512 feet, plus 3 feet, the length of a section that had broken off.

300 Royal Egyptian cubits = 515 feet.  The unit of measurement that Moses, who wrote [or actually, edited] the Book of Genesis, would have been familiar with was the Royal Egyptian Cubit.  This is the same unit of measurement used in the construction of the Great Pyramid in Egypt.  This cubit was employed until at least the time of King Solomon, as gates constructed by him, in Israel, are based on this unit of measurement.


Radar Scans
June/July 1985

Ron Wyatt, Dave Fassold, and John Baumgardner surveyed the site with metal detectors and located a specimen which had the appearance of "wrought iron."

It was reported by Dave Fassold that the semi-quantitative analysis of the iron samples, which was arranged by John Baumgardner, found them to contain from 60 percent to 91.84 percent FE2O3. 

Subsurface radar scans were performed at the site revealing a boat shaped structure below the surface.

Sub-surface radar is a device built by Geophysical Survey Systems Incorporated (GSSI) that can chart the presence of objects below the surface.   


August 1986

Joe Rosetta, vice-president of Geophysical Survey Systems, reviews the sub-surface radar scans.   His conclusion: "This is not a natural object. The reflections are occurring too periodic for it to be a natural type interface."  "You'd never see anything like this in natural geology.... Some human made this structure, whatever it is."


Noah's Ark Found
February 1987
Ron  meets with the Governor of the Agri District, Mr. Sevket Ekinci. The December 1986 decision was positive - it was the official decision of members of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, of Internal Affairs, and researchers from Ataturk University, among others, that the "boat-shaped formation" did indeed contain the remains of Noah's Ark! 

Ron Wyatt and Mr. Sevket Ekinci
Plans were made for the official dedication of the site, which would include Ron as guest of honor as the "discoverer" of the fact that it was truly the remains of Noah's Ark. 


June 20, 1987

Ron participates in the Dedication of "Noah's Ark." 

On the mountainside overlooking the former "boat shaped object", which had now been proclaimed by the Turkish Government to be "Noah's Ark", were gathered a large number of dignitaries, from the local level to the national level, as well as high ranking military.  Journalists were also present. 

Hurriyet - Turkish Newspaper

The plans were made public for a visitors' center to be erected on the spot. The governor spoke the dedication in Turkish and then he lifted the first shovel full of dirt - the groundbreaking of the new visitors' center.  Ron, as guest of honor, lifted the second shovel full of dirt and then other dignitaries participated in the ceremony.


After the ceremony, Governor Ekinci asked Ron to do a radar scan on the site to demonstrate for the journalists the ability of sub-surface radar to reveal structures beneath the surface.

After making several passes with the Radar, Ron noted, in an area commonly associated with "deck timber", one particular reading very near the surface. The Governor then ordered one of the soldiers to dig at the location Ron had indicated and there emerged  an artifact approximately 18 inches long which was labeled "deck timber".


"Deck Timber"

The excavation of the object was documented by way of film and aired throughout Turkey by way of TRT (Turkish Radio  and Television).

The Governor presented Ron with the specimen for the purpose of analysis in the United States.

First Lab Tests
September 16, 1987

Laboratory analysis was performed on artifact labeled "deck timber".  Galbraith Labs in Knoxville, Tennessee tested samples taken from within the "formation' and from without.  All of the laboratory procedures were videotaped, including the taking the sample from the specimen, and the actual execution of the analyses.  

Results of "inside" "outside" analysis:
The sample outside the formation showed a 1.88% carbon content; but the one from inside yielded a 4.95% carbon content, an amount that was consistent with the presence of prior living matter, such as decayed or petrified wood. It also showed a surprisingly high iron content.

Petrified wood is commonly known to contain organic carbon; but it is not known to be found in natural minerals.  Compounds of carbon can be analyzed to determine whether they are composed of matter that was non-organic (non-living), or organic (living). Therefore, the one test to determine if an object was organic (once living), or not is to determine its organic carbon content.

Gail Hutchens, Vice President of Galbraith, suggested that they run an analysis for total carbon content. This would include both inorganic and organic. Then, they would test for inorganic  Then, the two tests would be compared. By subtracting the amount of inorganic from the total amount, the amount of organic carbon would be determined.

Results of organic carbon testing:
The result was that it contained .71% total carbon. Inorganic carbon totalled .0081%. It contained .7019% ORGANIC CARBON- almost 100 times more organic than inorganic!  

The "deck timber" having been determined to contain organic Carbon, which means that it was once living, was found to have a unique characteristic in that It displayed no growth rings. 

Growth rings in trees and other plants are caused by a variation in the water supply to the plant. Annual rings occur when the temperature drops and the sap in the tree fails to rise. The leaves of the deciduous trees turn color and die, soon dropping off. In the spring, the warmth releases the tree from its state of "hibernation" and the sap begins to flow again. Even though there may be water in the ground, when the temperature drops, the tree does not continue its cycle until it is again spring. Therefore, a ring results when the growth is temporarily halted and begins when spring arrives.

In order to understand why the pre-flood wood showed no growth rings one needs only to consult the Bible.  It informs us that before the flood it did not rain; therefore there were not wet and dry seasons.  Growth was at a constant rate. 

Genesis2:5  "And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD GOD HAD NOT CAUSED IT TO RAIN UPON THE EARTH, and there was not a man to till the ground. 6  But THERE WENT UP A MIST FROM THE EARTH, AND WATERED THE WHOLE FACE OF THE GROUND." 

Scientific study confirms the absence of growth rings in plants from what they label the "Carboniferous period"

"There was, as we have already said, secondary bark and wood, similar to that of modern trees but lacking the spring and winter rings which correspond to seasonal alternation of moisture and dryness. This is a further proof that the Carboniferous climate was fairly uniform." (Larousse Encyclopedia of the Earth, p. 369.) 

The Mini-Excavation
October 23, 1990

Ron Wyatt and  Richard Rives performed what has become known as the "mini-excavation" on "Noah's Ark".  Shovels were sharpened and the blades bent to form a crude "giant razor". They simply cleaned one badly eroding section in an area believed by the Turkish Government to be "rib timbers".

Being very careful not to remove more than just a minute amount of dirt, they soon could see the color difference in the lighter rib timbers as contrasted against the darker soil. The whole process was videotaped. The rib timbers were found to be fragmented and to be held in place by the surrounding material. 

The INTERNAL structure members are in a much better state simply because they have not been exposed to the elements. On the east side of the ark is a section in which the "rib timbers" are exposed but have NOT completely fallen away.  These "rib timbers" are fractured, having suffered from "frost wedging".  Even though the ribs are in a fragmented state, they are still held in place by the soil.  The " ribs" were able to be seen due to the color difference between the soil and themselves.

A Rivet Discovered
June 1991
A tour group, organized by Wyatt Archaeological Research, visited the site.  As Ron and the group approached "Noah's Ark" from the south end, he noticed an object that when observed,  in the presence of the tour participants, bore the shape of a very large "rivet" head, with a washer around it.



Ron had previously photographed what looked like groupings of metal fittings on the sides of "Noah's Ark", but he could not disturb them by cleaning them off. 

Hostage in the Mountains
August 31, 1991
Application was made with the Turkish Government for a "full excavation permit" for work on "Noah's Ark".  While waiting on the permit, Ron Wyatt, Richard Rives and  Marvin Wilson of the United States and Dr. Allen Roberts, of Sydney Australia,  were taken hostage.   At gunpoint, they spent 21 days climbing mountains in Eastern Turkey as their assailants avoided the Turkish forces attempting to rescue them.

More Lab Tests
February 1992

Richard Rives, having become acquainted with an international corporation which specialized in metallurgy, made arrangements for the "rivet" to be analyzed in their laboratory.  

Careful analyses was performed on the specimen.  Samples were analyzed from what appeared to be the washer around the head of the rivet, and from an area 1 cm. away
from the washer.   

The 4 analyses they ran showed that location 1 yielded a 1.88% and 1.97% carbon content while location 2 yielded a .14% and .13% amount. 

The scientists involved in the analysis made the following notation in their report: 

"It is interesting to note that location 1 (presumably fossilized timber members) was found to contain much higher carbon (1.9%) than location 2 (presumably fossilized metal." 

When an object undergoes the process of fossilization, as its material decays it is replaced by material in the surrounding soil or water.  The analysis revealed  exactly what would be expected to be found in a fossilized metal washer and rivet (non-living matter) attached to a piece of fossilized wood (once living matter).

The discovery of titanium in the "Rivet" is of special interest.  The advantage of titanium as a metal is its tremendous strength, its light weight and its resistance to corrosion.

All of the analyses performed on the "Rivet" found it to contain Iron, Aluminum, Manganese, Vanadium and Chromium. These elements are known today to be the major alloying agents added to titanium.

Noah's Ark? 

The Turkish Government says yes! 


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Timeline of Ancient History


  • 753 BC: Founding of Rome (traditional date)
  • 745 BC: Tiglath-Pileser III becomes the new king of Assyria. With time he conquers neighboring countries and turns Assyria into an empire
  • 728 BC: Rise of the Median Empire
  • 722 BC: Spring and Autumn Period begins in China; Zhou Dynasty's power is diminishing; the era of the Hundred Schools of Thought
  • 700 BC: the construction of Marib Dam in Arabia Felix
  • 653 BC: Rise of Persian Empire
  • 612 BC: Attributed date of the destruction of Nineveh and subsequent fall of Assyria.
  • 600 BC: Sixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge. A number of these Maha Janapadas are semi-democratic republics.
  • c. 600 BC: Pandyan kingdom in South India
  • 599 BC: Mahavira, founder of Jainism is born as a prince at kundalavana, who ruled magadha empire.
  • 563 BC: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), founder of Buddhism is born as a prince of the Shakya tribe, which ruled parts of Magadha, one of the Maha Janapadas
  • 551 BC: Confucius, founder of Confucianism, is born
  • 550 BC: Foundation of the Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great
  • 546 BC: Cyrus the Great overthrows Croesus King of Lydia
  • 544 BC: Rise of Magadha as the dominant power under Bimbisara.
  • 539 BC: The Fall of the Babylonian Empire and liberation of the Jews by Cyrus the Great
  • 529 BC: Death of Cyrus
  • 525 BC: Cambyses II of Persia conquers Egypt
  • c. 512 BC: Darius I (Darius the Great) of Persia, subjugates eastern Thrace, Macedonia submits voluntarily, and annexes Libya, Persian Empire at largest extent
  • 509 BC: Expulsion of the last King of Rome, founding of Roman Republic (traditional date)
  • 508 BC: Democracy instituted at Athens
  • 500 BC: Panini standardizes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit
  • 500 BC: Pingala uses zero and binary numeral system
  • 490 BC: Greek city-states defeat Persian invasion at Battle of Marathon
  • 480 BC: Invasion of Greece by Xerxes; Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis
  • 475 BC: Warring States Period begins in China as the Zhou king became a mere figurehead; China is annexed by regional warlords
  • 469 BC: Birth of Socrates
  • 465 BC: Murder of Xerxes
  • 460 BC: First Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta
  • 447 BC: Building of the Parthenon at Athens started
  • 424 BC: Nanda dynasty comes to power.
  • 404 BC: End of Peloponnesian War between the Greek city-states
  • 399 BC: February 15—The Greek philosopher Socrates is sentenced to death by Athenian authorities in Athens, condemned for impiety and the corruption of youth. He refuses to flee into exile and is sentenced to death by drinking hemlock.
  • c. 385 BC: The Greek philosopher Plato, a former disciple of Socrates, founds a philosophical school at the Akademia in Athens—later famously known as the Academy. There, Plato, and the later heads of the school, called scholarchs, taught many of the brilliant minds of the day, including the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle
  • 335 BC: The Greek philosopher Aristotle founds his philosophical school—known then as the Lyceum (named because it was located near the site of the Lyceum gymnasium in Athens)--and begins teaching there
  • 331 BC: Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela
  • 326 BC: Alexander the Great defeats Indian king Porus in the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
  • 323 BC: Death of Alexander the Great at Babylon
  • 321 BC: Chandragupta Maurya overthrows the Nanda Dynasty of Magadha.
  • 307 BC: The Greek philosopher Epicurus founds his philosophical school, the Garden, outside the walls of Athens
  • 305 BC: Chandragupta Maurya seizes the satrapies of Paropanisadai (Kabul), Aria (Herat), Arachosia (Qanadahar) and Gedrosia (Baluchistan) from Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian satrap of Babylonia, in return for 500 elephants.
  • 301 BC: Zeno of Citium founds the philosophy of Stoicism in Athens (the philosophy derives its namesake from the fact that Zeno and his followers would regularly meet near the Stoa Poikile ("Painted Porch") of the Athenian agora.)
  • 273 BC: Ashoka the Great becomes the emperor of the Mauryan Empire
  • 257 BC: Thục Dynasty takes over Việt Nam (then Kingdom of Âu Lạc)
  • 250 BC: Rise of Parthia (Ashkâniân), the third native dynasty of ancient Persia
  • 232 BC: Death of Emperor Ashoka the Great; Decline of the Mauryan Empire
  • 230 BC: Emergence of Satavahanas in South India
  • 221 BC: Qin Shi Huang unifies China, end of Warring States Period; marking the beginning of Imperial rule in China which lasts until 1912. Construction of the Great Wall by the Qin Dynasty begins.
  • 207 BC: Kingdom of Nan Yueh extends from North Việt Nam to Canton
  • 202 BC: Han Dynasty established in China, after the death of Qin Shi Huang; China in this period started to open trading connections with the West, i.e. the Silk Road
  • 202 BC: Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal at Battle of Zama
  • c. 200 BC: Chera dynasty in South India
  • 185 BC: Sunga Empire founded.
  • 149 BC?: Third and final Punic War; destruction of Carthage by Rome
  • 146 BC: Roman conquest of Greece, see Roman Greece
  • 140 BC: The first system of imperial examinations was officially instituted in China by the Han Dynasty emperor Han Wu Di.
  • 111 BC: First Chinese domination of Viet Nam in the form of the Nam Viet Kingdom.
  • c. 100 BC: Chola dynasty rises in prominence.
  • 53 BC: Battle of Carrhae, the Roman Republic's bloodiest defeat. The army of Roman Republic led by Marcus Licinius Crassus was destroyed by parthian Spahbod Surena. Crassus and his son were killed during the battle and almost all of Roman army were killed or captured. even the golden aquilae (legionary battle standards) was captured by Parthian's army (It was first and last time that aquilae was captured by Roman's enemy).
  • 49 BC: Roman Civil War between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great
  • 44 BC: Julius Caesar murdered by Marcus Brutus and others; End of Roman Republic; beginning of Roman Empire
  • 6 BC: Earliest theorized date for birth of Jesus of Nazareth
  • 4 BC: Widely accepted date (Ussher) for birth of Jesus Christ
  • 9: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the Imperial Roman Army's bloodiest defeat.
  • 14: Death of Emperor Augustus (Octavian), ascension of his adopted son Tiberius to the throne
  • 29: Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
  • 68: Year of the four emperors in Rome
  • 70: Destruction of Jerusalem by the armies of Titus.
  • 117: Roman Empire at largest extent under Emperor Trajan
  • 192: Kingdom of Champa in Central Việt Nam
  • 200s: The Buddhist Srivijaya Empire established in the Malay Archipelago.
  • 220: Three Kingdoms period begins in China after the fall of Han Dynasty.
  • 226: Fall of the Parthian Empire and Rise of the Sassanian Empire
  • 238: Defeat of Gordian III (238?), Philip the Arab (244?), and Valerian (253?), by Shapur I of Persia, (Valerian was captured by the Persians).
  • 280: Emperor Wu established Jin Dynasty providing a temporary unity of China after the devastating Three Kingdoms period.
  • 285: Emperor Diocletian splits the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western Empires
  • 313: Edict of Milan legalized Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, and thus ended the previous state-sanctioned persecution of Christians there
  • 335: Samudragupta becomes the emperor of the Gupta empire
  • 378: Battle of Adrianople, Roman army under Eastern Roman Emperor Valens is defeated by the Germanic tribes
  • 395: Roman Emperor Theodosius I outlaws all pagan religions in favour of Christianity
  • 410: Alaric I sacks Rome for the first time since 390 BC
  • c. 455: Skandagupta repels an Indo-Hephthalite attack on India.
  • 476: Romulus Augustus, last Western Roman Emperor is forced to abdicate by Odoacer, a half Hunnish and half Scirian chieftain of the Germanic Heruli; Odoacer returns the imperial regalia to Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno in Constantinople in return for the title of dux of Italy; traditionally, the most frequently cited date for the end of the Roman Empire (although the Eastern Roman Empire, based in Constantinople, would still continue to exist until 1453)
  • 529 The Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I ordered the prominent philosophical schools of antiquity throughout the Eastern Roman Empire (including the famous Academy in Athens, among others) to close down—allegedly, because Justinian frowned upon the pagan nature of these schools

The transition period from Classical Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages is known as Late Antiquity. Some key dates marking that transition are:

  • 293: reforms of Roman Emperor Diocletian
  • 395: the division of Roman Empire into the Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire
  • 476: the fall of Western Roman Empire
  • 529: closure of Platon Academy in Athens by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I

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Life After the Flood of Noah


Article by author: Mike Gascoigne (Creation Historian)


(Links in this article go directly to Mike Gascoigne's pages - if you go to his site, which I do recommend, please navigate back to our site as soon as possible - thanks!)


From Noah to Dardanus

This article describes the descendants of Noah, up to the foundation of Troy by Dardanus, and is based on Greek mythology which is thought to be an embellished version of real history.

Noah to Dardanus 

The Real History Behind The Greek Mythology

There are good reasons to believe that Greek Mythology is an embellished version of real history. The so-called 'gods' were just ordinary men and women whose deeds have been exaggerated so that they could be made into gods. I will go into this argument in detail in my forthcoming new book, but basically they are as follows:

  • Ouranos and Gaia represent Noah and his wife.
  • Titan, Kronus and Iapetus are Shem, Ham and Japheth [the sons of Noah]. This is evident from a Chaldean fragment (1) which says "After the Flood, Titan and Prometheus lived, and Titan undertook a war against Kronus". Prometheus (not shown in the diagram), is a son of Iapetus in Greek mythology, and he appears in the Chaldean fragment in place of his father. Kronus must be Ham, because he appears in the Egyptian king list of Manetho (2) among the demi-gods that precede the first dynasty. This leaves only Shem to be accounted for, and he is given the name Titan which is a collective name for all the children of Ouranos and Gaia.
  • Kronus achieves notoriety by castrating his father Uranus, an exaggerated version of the story about Ham seeing his father naked in his tent.
  • By comparison of the Greek and Egyptian mythologies, it is possible to show that the Greek Zeus is the Egyptian Osyris, and since he is a son of Ham, he must be Mizraim [that is, Mizraim as mentioned in the Bible].

Oceanus and Tethys were additional children of Noah, born after the flood (and there is nothing in the Bible to suggest that this should not happen). They got married and had both sons and daughters. Their sons were called 'River Gods' and their daughters were called 'Oceanids'. One of the Oceanids, either Clymene or Asia, married Iapetus (Japheth) and they had a son called Atlas who had a daughter called Electra. She married Zeus who is the same as the Egyptian Osiris and the Biblical Mizraim. Zeus and Electra had a son called Dardanus who became the first king of Troy.

Dardanus married Batia, the grand-daughter of Scamander the River God, who represents the river near Troy. Her father was Teucer, king of the Teucrians. Dardanus and Batia had a son called Ericthoneus who succeeded him as the next king of Troy, and the line continues as far as the Trojan war. Virgil (3) tells the story of how Aeneas fled from the burning city of Troy and established his kingdom in Italy. Then there is Brutus, the great-grandson of Aeneas, who came to Britain and founded of the British (Welsh) monarchy, despite claims to the contrary which I have dealt with in Why All The Fuss About Geoffrey and The Good Book of Oxford.

Taking all this together, we have a continuous genealogy from Noah to the Welsh monarchy, but that's not all. Berosus (4), a Babylonian priest of the third century BC, gives a list of ten kings before the flood, corresponding to the ten patriarchs from Adam to Noah. So the genealogy goes all the way back to Adam.

Note: There is a more elaborate version of the descent from Noah to Dardanus, but it is based on sources that cannot be authenticated. See From Noah to Dardanus (according to Annius).


1. Hodges, E.R., Cory's Ancient Fragments, A New and Enlarged Edition, Reeves & Turner, London, 1876. Facsimile reprints from Ballantrae, Ontario, Canada. This Chaldean fragment is from Alexander Polyhistor.

2. Cory's Ancient Fragments. King list of Manetho.

3. Virgil - The Aneid, Penguin Classics.

4. Cory's Ancient Fragments. See the fragments of Berosus from Apollodorus and Abydenus.

~ Mike Gascoigne



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Article from Bill Cooper, Historian, and author of "After the Flood." 




In the Beginning

It is commonly thought in this present age that nothing is worthy of our belief unless first it can be scientifically demonstrated and observed to be true. This idea, known today as empiricism, has been around since the 1920s, and says basically that nothing is to be taken on trust, and that anything which lacks direct corroboration must be discarded from mankind's find of knowledge as simply not worth the knowing. Not surprisingly, a special case was made by those who had thought of the idea for including the Bible in this great process of deselection, and it was assumed without further enquiry that nothing in especially the earlier portions of the biblical record could be demonstrated to be true and factual. This applied particularly to the book of Genesis. There all was relegated, by modernist scholars at least, to the realms of myth and fiction, with very little of its contents being said to bear any relevance at all for 20th-century man. Not even a moral relevance was granted. In other words, we were solemnly assured in the light of modern wisdom that, historically speaking, the book of Genesis was simply not worth the paper it was written on.

When I first came across this problem some thirty years ago, I found it most perplexing. On the one hand I had the Bible itself claiming to be the very Word of God, and on the other I was presented with numerous commentaries that spoke with one voice in telling me that the Bible was nothing of the kind. It was merely a hotch-potch collection of middle- eastern myths and fables that sought to explain the world in primitive terms, whose parts had been patched together by a series of later editors. Modem scientific man need have nothing whatever to do with it.

Now, it simply was not possible for both these claims to be valid. Only one of them could be right, and I saw it as my duty, to myself at least, to find out which was the true account and which was the false. So it was then that I decided to select a certain portion of Genesis and submit it to a test which, if applied to any ordinary historical document, would be considered a test of the most unreasonable severity. And I would continue that test until either the book of Genesis revealed itself to be a false account, or it would be shown to be utterly reliable in its historical statements. Either way, I would discover once and for all whether the biblical record was worthy of my trust or not. It seemed a little irreverent to treat a book that claimed to be the very Word of God in such a fashion. But if truth has any substance at all, then that book would surely be able to bear such a test. If Genesis contained any falsehood, error or misleading statement of fact, then a severe testing would reveal it and I would be the first to add my own voice to those of all the other scholars who declared the book of Genesis to be little more than fable.

With any ordinary historical document, of course, a simple error or even a small series of errors, would not necessarily disqualify it from being regarded as an historical account, or one that could at least be made use of by historians. But Genesis is no ordinary record. No ordinary document would claim inerrancy in its statements, and any document which did make such a claim for itself could expect a thorough and severe drubbing at the hands of scholars. But, if Genesis was indeed a true account of what had happened all those years ago, if it was indeed everything that it claimed itself to be, then the truth that it proclaimed could not be destroyed by any amount of testing. It could only be vindicated. In that regard at least, truth is indestructible.

What I had not expected at the time was the fact that the task was to engage my attention and energies for more than twenty-five years. Nor had I expected the astonishing degree to which Genesis, particularly the tenth and eleventh chapters, was to be vindicated. These chapters are conveniently known to scholars as the Table of Nations, and the sheer breadth and depth of the historical evidence that was available for their study astonished me. It bore very little relation indeed to what I had been led to expect. But that was not the only surprise in store.

The test that I devised was a simple one. If the names of the individuals, families, peoples and tribes listed in the Table of Nations were genuine, then those same names should appear also in the records of other nations of the Middle East. Archaeology should also reveal that those same families and peoples are listed in Genesis (or not as the case may be) in their correct ethnological, geographical and linguistic relation-ships. I allowed for the fact that a good proportion of these names would not appear. Either the records that once contained them had long since perished, or the diversity of language and dialect had rendered them unrecognisable. Some would be lost in obscurity. It simply was not realistic to expect that every name would have been recorded in the annals of the ancient Middle East and would also have survived to the present day. I therefore would have been content to have found say 40% of the list vindicated. In fact that would have been a very high achievement given the sheer antiquity of the Table of Nations itself and the reported scarcity of the surviving extra-biblical records from those ancient times. But when, over my twenty-five years of research, that confirmatory evidence grew past 40% to 50%, and then 60% and beyond, it soon became apparent that modern wisdom in this matter was wide of the mark. Very wide of the mark indeed. Today I can say that the names so far vindicated in the Table of Nations make up over 99% of the list, and I shall make no further comment on that other than to say that no other ancient historical document of purely human authorship could be expected to yield such a level of corroboration as that! And I will add further that modern biblical commentators must make of it what they will.

But the test didn't stop there. I had determined at the very beginning that the test was to be one of unreasonable severity, so even the astonishing level of vindication so far achieved did not fully satisfy the requirements of the test. The reason for this was simple. The Table of Nations was written in the Middle East. But all the records consulted by me in investigating that Table were also written in the Middle East. I therefore decided that the test should continue beyond those geographical bounds, and I carried the search into the records of the early peoples of Europe. I wanted to see firstly whether the same patriarchs mentioned in Genesis were evident in the most ancient genealogies and chronicles of the peoples of Europe, and I wanted also to assess the level at which these early peoples were aware of other events mentioned in Genesis. The important part of this test was that the documents and records consulted by me had to date from before the time that any given European nation was converted to Christianity. That was because it is too often alleged by certain scholars that the early Christian church, particularly the monastic community, was given to forgery and invention. So only documents that pre-dated the coming of Christianity and its forging monks to a particular nation whose records I was consulting would be considered. This part of the test was crucial and was to yield as great a level of vindication for the tenth and eleventh chapters of Genesis as the first part of the test.

What follows is a summary of all that evidence. I will not pretend that this book has been easy to write. It hasn't. Although I have aimed for readability, most of the evidence that I uncovered over the years consisted merely of lists of names, innumerable cross-references, royal genealogies, king-lists and old chronicles. So if I have failed in any way to make all that a rattling good read, then please blame all those skeletal documents that ancient officialdom has left us rather than the present writer, whose self-appointed and lonely task has been to make sense of them all! Any student who wishes to pursue matters further will find copious references to help him or her in further study. The rest, as they say, is history.

Bill Cooper
March 1995



Ever wonder who wrote the book of Genesis? Moses, right? Well, perhaps he was the editor of the book. Check out this next article: 


Article from Mike Gascoigne, Historian and Author


(Links in this article go back to Mike Gascoigne's website)  


Structure of Genesis

In addition to the linguistic arguments, I discovered there are other reasons to believe that Hebrew was the first language [ever spoken - see article on this subject], and this lies in the construction of the Book of Genesis, otherwise known as the first of the five books of Moses. However, Moses could not have written it, because it describes events that occurred long before his time. Instead he compiled it from other documents that were available to him. It was commonplace in the ancient world to write a "colophon" at the end of a document, identifying the author, and sometimes the date and place when it was written. Colophons have been found on stone tablets belonging to ancient Babylon, and they are the equivalent of the modern-day title page that appears at the beginning of a book.

The colophons in the Book of Genesis all have a similar form such as "This the book of the generations of Adam", or "These are the generations of Noah". The Hebrew word "toledoth" is consistently used, which means "generations", "origins" or "histories", and then there is the name of the person who is signing off this section of the history. In some cases it is followed by a list of his descendants, and this has led some commentators to believe that the "toledoth" phrase is an introduction to a genealogical list. However, there is not always a genealogy, and the regular repetition of the "toledoth" phrase indicates that it is genuinely a signing-off phrase and not an introduction. For a discussion of the text, see The First Book of Moses and the 'Toledoth' of Genesis, by Damien F. Mackey. He credits P.J. Wiseman as the original author who discovered the toledoth structure in 1936, and since then it has appeared in various commentaries, including The Genesis Record by Henry Morris.


There are nine sections in the Book of Genesis as follows:

  1. The Book of Heaven and Earth (Gen. 1:1 - 2.4), ending with "These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens". This must have been written by God because it covers the days of creation when no man was present.

  2. The Book of Adam (Gen. 2:5 - 5:2), ending with "This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him; Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.".
    Note: Gen. 5:2 is probably part of the colophon because of the use of the word "day", similar to Gen. 2:4.

  3. The Book of Noah (Gen. 5:3 - 6:9a), ending with "These are the generations of Noah".

  4. The Book of the Sons of Noah (Gen. 6:9b - 10:1a), ending with "Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth".

  5. The Book of Shem (Gen. 10:1b - 11:10a), ending with "These are the generations of Shem".

  6. The Book of Terah (Gen. 11:10b-27a), ending with "Now these are the generations of Terah".

  7. The Book of Isaac and Ishmael (Gen. 11:27b - 25:19a), ending with "And these are the generations of Isaac, Abraham's son". It is thought that this large section is mainly from Isaac, but there is a contribution from Ishmael, ending with "Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bare unto Abraham" (Gen. 25:12).
  8. The Book of Jacob and Esau (Gen. 25:19b - 37:2a), ending with "These are the generations of Jacob". There are two contributions from Esau. The first one ends with "Now these are the generations of Esau, who is Edom" (Gen. 36:1), and the second one ends with "And these are the generations of Esau the father of the Edomites in mount Seir". (Gen. 36:9).

  9. The Book of the Sons of Jacob (Gen. 37:2b - Exodus 1:4), ending with "Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob. Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.".
    In this case the word "toledoth" is not used in Exodus 1:1, but the structure is the same, using the word "shemoth" which means "names". The names that follow are not a list of descendants, but the names of the brothers themselves, probably assembled together for a signing-off ceremony. Joseph's name is missing because he had died, as recorded in the last verse of Genesis. In that case, the signing-off ceremony was probably soon after Joseph's funeral. They were all assembled at Joseph's house, and they looked at the books that had been written so far, and then they wrote their own book and signed it off. The complete collection of books remained in the royal archive, and would have been available to Moses who was brought up in Pharaoh's house.
    Note: The word "generation" which appears in Exodus 1:6 is not "toledoth". Instead it is "dor", which means "circle" or "generation" and is commonly used to imply continuity.

Having established that the Book of Genesis consists of nine separate books, written by different people, the question arises, in what language were all these books written? The name "Hebrew", referring to both the people and the language of the Israelites, is attributed to their ancestor Heber, the great-grandson of Shem, so it must be a very ancient language. All the books from Terah onwards must have been written in Hebrew, because he was the fifth-generation descendant of Heber. The earlier books must also have been written in Hebrew, for the following reasons:

  • The language structure is essentially the same throughout the book of Genesis, including the colophons, and there is no reason to believe that the earlier books were translations from something else.

  • Moses and his scribes were not linguists and there is no reason to believe that they were compiling and translating documents from different languages.

  • The Hebrew scribes had such reverence for the language of the Torah, that if an error was made while copying a scroll, they would throw the entire scroll away. There were no critical revisions, as might be expected with translations. They behaved entirely as if they were dealing with original text, and not just any old text, but something very precious that had been handed down to them from the beginning of the world.


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"And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech." ~ The Book of Genesis, Chapter 11, verse 1, King James Version.



The Language of Eden

This article discusses the possibility that Hebrew might have been the original language of the world, before the dispersion from Babylon. By: Mike Gascoigne, Historian and author. 



Since the publication of my book, Forgotten History of the Western People, some of my readers have pointed out that the original world language, before the dispersion from the Tower of Babel, might have been Hebrew. They believe that Hebrew was the original language of the garden of Eden, and the study of this subject is called "Edenics". They also believe that many English words are derived from Hebrew. When I first heard of this, I found it a bit strange because English is an Indo-European language, and Hebrew is Semitic, and the notion of the Hebrew roots of the English language runs contrary to modern thinking of linguistics. I wondered if it might be just another fanciful idea from the British Israelites, who believe that the British people are descended from the ten lost tribes of Israel, placing them in a special covenant realtionship with God. However, I found that the supporters of Edenics are not British Israelites and they are not trying to prove any religious doctrine.

So, I decided to look into the subject, and to my surprise I found there is some quite substantal evidence that Hebrew might indeed be the original world language. The main source of linguistic evidence is The Word: The Dictionary That Reveals the Hebrew Source of English, by Isaac Mozeson.

~ Mike Gascoigne, Historian and Author. 


The Word 

Article from:  

This is what author, Honorary President of the Educators Council of America and visiting prof. at Harvard, Hebrew U., Brandeis, etc. said in a spring 2000 interview ( see -  

There is some scholarly support for monogenesis of language, the thesis that all human languages are derived from a single mother tongue. In his book, The Word, Isaac Mozeson makes a strong case for Hebrew being that language, a thesis not yet accepted by most linguistic scholars. According to Mozeson, more English words can be linked clearly to biblical Hebrew than to Greek, Latin, and French. His extensive research reveals the Hebrew source of thousands of English words and terms. It shows that:

  • "Borrowings" from Hebrew by the English language are actually extensive;

  • The number of sound-alike, mean-alike terms in Indo-European and Semitic languages far exceed the allowable number of borrowings or "coincidences";

  • Hebrew is a uniquely profound system of languages that resembles the organicism of natural science rather than the product of human development;

  • If there is an original language, it is the language of the Hebrew Bible.

  • "What I have seen of Mozeson's work suggests a far wider sharing of world vocabulary than has hitherto been accepted. The data should revive controversy regarding a monogenesis of language and the primacy of Near Eastern culture." ~ Prof. Louis Feldman, Chairman of Classical Language and Literature, Yeshiva University.

    "The work is a challenge to linguists. The parallels traced seem beyond the range of coincidence, and call for a re-examination of our etymologies. Etymon , truth, must be the quest." ~ Dr. Joseph T. Shipley, author of The Dictionary of Word Origins and The Origin of English Words.

    "What an exciting, edifying work! The book is engrossing as no dictionary I've ever seen. Here is not only a synthesized view of how all languages developed, but a process of association which brings together so many cultures and so much human development. ... My earnest congratulations to you for this landmark accomplishment." ~ Alan Adelson, Executive Director The Jewish Heritage Writing Project, NYC.

    "The author amply demonstrates that the number of words "borrowed" from the Hebrew is far greater than is now recognized and that the number of the sound-alike and mean-alike words is much too large to be a coincidence. ... I recommend this book highly."  ~ Rabbi Israel Wohlgelernter, Young Israel of 5th Ave. (NYC) T.

    "Even etymologoly, from the Greek word etmos (truth), is traced to Hebrew emet (truth). This book, containing 22,000 examples, is the equivalent of an archeological dig at the Tower (teerah/turret) of Babel and is fun as well as informative." ~ The New York Jewish Week.


    Is it true that this dictionary can prove that:

    • English is ultimately from Biblical Hebrew.

    • All languages ultimately link up, and only through variations of the original, universal language (Hebrew).

    • Every word ever thought or spoken is merely a disguised form of Hebrew. Hebrew is on the tip of your tongue.

    • The primordial human language system (Hebrew) is a natural science like physics or chemistry. Only the "DNA" of Hebrew letters reveals the FL/LF element in FoLio and LeaF (synonyms) and the MN/NM in opposing NuMber words like MiNus and MaNy.

    • Even animal names have hidden, profound meanings: GIRAFFE (a presumed Italian and Arabic corruption) means "neck"; SKUNK (to English via the Algonquian Indian) means "stink" in the language ascribed to our ancestor Adam.

    Hundreds of language mysteries are finally solved. Aside from the larger questions, we discover why words like NICK are not spelled "nik", why RICHES is singular and why knowledge of the Bible explains words like JACKRABBIT, RUTHLESS, OGRE and COLOSSAL .(With help from Jacob, Ruth, Og and Goliath.)

    THE WORD will have you wondering why the authorities acknowledged words like AMEN and JUBILEE to be borrowings from Hebrew, but not related terms like AMENABLE and JUBILATE. Was it lack of knowledge or a bias against the language celebrated as the Mother Tongue until the Nineteenth Century?

    THE WORD gives you the tools. You may now dig all the way back to the Tower of Babel (the unacknowledged source of BABBLE). In the same excavation you can bury the myths of the Bible-scorning professors and their incomplete, incorrect dictionaries.

    No longer should students be taught that:

    • The grunting of primitives evolved into the eloquence of Shakespeare.

    • Most puns and sound-alike words are mere coincidences.

    • No more than twenty sound-alike, mean-alike words, like MAMA, PAPA and SACK. are shared between unrelated languages.

    • The Indo-Aryans of Europe evolved from different primates, and so their languages differ from those of Africans, Asians and Semites.

    • Mysterious languages like Basque have no known linguistic affinities.

    • Hebrew, too, evolved from some unknown, theoretical proto-Semitic language.

    THE WORD is more than a book. It is an event. A reunion of long lost relatives separated since the neurological disturbance at Babel that scrambled the output stage of our common, programmed language.

    THE WORD is a unique reference text that traces the vast majority of English words back to their ultimate origins in Biblical Hebrew. Ten years of original research revealed a bold new vision of the dynamics of human language. Through the primal Hebrew root hidden behind every English word a whole new world of order and meaning unfolds.

    Readers of THE WORD discover that:

    • Many more words should be acknowledged as borrowings from the Hebrew. Some of these giant oversights include :ogre (from mighty Og, King of Bashan) and colossus (the Greek Gollius or Goliath).

    • The few aknowledged borrowings from Hebrew, like MEN and JUBILEE, should be extended to words like AMENABLE and JUBILATE.

    • There are hundreds of English and Hebrew words that sound remarkably alike and mean the same but are not cited by linguists. A few of these are abash and BooSHa, albino and LaBHaN, evil and AVeL, lick and LaKaK and regular and RaGeeL.

    • The same rules that connect the related vocabularies of Spanish, French and Italian apply to Hebrew's clear connection to English.

    • Many names of animals only have meanings in Hebrew. Giraffe means "neck" and skunk means "stink" in the language of Eden.

    THE WORD gives you the tools to dig all the way back to the Tower of Babel, yet it is an easy book to use and enjoy. The extensive Hebrew and English indices guide you to any word you seek. In each entry you will find all Hebrew and foreign words clearly transliterated. You'll see each word broken down to its elemental building blocks and discover a whole family of close and distant relatives, synonyms and antonyms. In each entry Biblical verses verify the meaning and authenticity of each Hebrew root word.

    THE WORD allows you to easily learn the language of the Bible as thousands of the featured word pairs sound so much alike. Are you a hardcore skeptic, a religious fundamentalist or somewhere in between? Let the millions of "coincidences" in THE WORD challenge you to believe that English and Hebrew are profoundly connected and that your language is but a scrambled form of your ancestors Adam and Eve.

    The Word does for the Bible and the Tower of Babel scenario what researchers have tried to do for Noah's Ark and the Shroud of Turin. Connecting most English words to Biblical Hebrew (with samples from American Indian, Basque, Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiian and, etc. thrown in) upsets the Darwinists. (They claim that Blacks developed unrelated African languages because they evolved from different apes than did Indo-European man. Jews and Blacks are segregated in a linguistic country club called Afro-Asiatic.) The Creationists believe that our common ancestor Adam was given one language which he named the animals with and which later diversified (Genesis 11:1) into our current babble of languages. ("Babble" is not even acknowledged to be from "Babel".) The Bible believers of our monotheistic religions will be encouraged to see the irrefutable mass of proof compiled in THE WORD. Reluctantly the professors will have to admit that Noah Webster was right, that the first dissertation written at Harvard was right and that the world prior to Nineteenth Century German linguists was right -- that Hebrew IS the Mother Tongue."

    See why AMERICA means "work," ENGLISH means "crooked" and GIRAFFE means "neck." Thanks to a decade of original research we might glory in thefact that our words have meanings that are universal and profound. From its electrifying title on, this book crackles as much with controversy as it does with new information. THE WORD is an etymological dictionary of English that begins where the others have left off. Far more than an essential reference book, readers of various educational and religious backgrounds are likely to debate the thoroughly documented thesis here that dares to claim that:

    • All English words can be traced beyond German, Latin, and Greek to their ultimate origin in Biblical Hebrew

    • Even "English" words like SKUNK (from the American Indian) and KARATE (from Japanese) are traceable to Hebrew because ALL languages link up to this original Mother Tongue

    • Language in its pristine form (Hebrew) is a natural science like chemistry or physics; reversible two-letter roots have like-sounding synonyms and antonyms.

    THE WORD restores lost worlds of meaning to everyday words and challenges opponents of Creationism and the Bible to reconsider the Tower of Babel scenario of Genesis. After reading THE WORD one can see how humans might have been programmed with a symmetrical, semantically rich "computing" language that was scrambled in the output stage to create our current Babel of languages to engender our multi-national world history. To restore meaning to the sounds we call words, we need only go back to the Garden, the primordeal setting where Adam and Eve's coinage made perfect, profound sense.

    Racism and xenophobia in Western Civilization has long been entrenched into the concepts of language history that is taught in our schools. The Nineteenth Century Germans who developed modern linguistics placed barbed wire around the language barriers, separating the tongues of Africa and the Middle East from the language family of the Aryans. Indo-Aryan (renamed Indo-European after the war) was to have developed from a separate people that evolved from separate monkeys (read better monkeys). Even today, students are taught that the Hamito-Semitic languages are related, but that Indo-European remains in splendid isolation. As more scholars support the work of compiler Isaac Mozeson's ten-year research project, it becomes clear that English vocabulary has more affinity to proto-Semitic or ancient Hebrew that it has to any one of its immediate parent languages: Latin, Greek or German (which, themselves, ultimately link up to Hebrew's uniquely versatile roots).

    This is what author, Honorary President of the Educators Council of America and visiting prof. at Harvard, Hebrew U., Brandeis, etc. said in a spring 2000 interview (see

    There is some scholarly support for monogenesis of language, the thesis that all human languages are derived from a single mother tongue. In his book, The Word, Isaac Mozeson makes a strong case for Hebrew being that language, a thesis not yet accepted by most linguistic scholars. According to Mozeson, more English words can be linked clearly to biblical Hebrew than to Greek, Latin, and French. His extensive research reveals the Hebrew source of thousands of English words and terms. It shows that:

    1. "Borrowings" from Hebrew by the English language are actually extensive;

    2. The number of sound-alike, mean-alike terms in Indo-European and Semitic languages far exceed the allowable number of borrowings or "coincidences";

    3. Hebrew is a uniquely profound system of languages that resembles the organicism of natural science rather than the product of human development;

    4. If there is an original language, it is the language of the Hebrew Bible.

    ShaLoM (source of SoLeMn, grand SlaM and So LoNg), ~ Isaac Mozeson.

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