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King David's Mighty Men of Valor!

 

Pic of Adino, as presented by Redemption (R) Games

 

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There has been many movies made over the past one hundred years or so concerning strong, athletic men. Mostly, these movies take a look back into history at men of great valour, or they perhaps rehash the story from some famous book in a visual form, and express great fighting men on the silver screen. Also, in recent history, there have been some great fighting men of valour as well - Such as Bruce Lee (famous Martial-Artist), who has been claimed, in his day, as to being the strongest man alive - this being in the early 1970's A.D. Also, of war fame, there has been Audie Murphy, who was the most decorated hero of World War II., and who has single-handedly killed around two hundred men. In movie history, we see, not too many years back, Errol Flynn portraying Swashbucklers who are almost unstoppable behind a flashing blade. There have been superheroes who have graced comic books for both young and old readers to admire - such as Captain America and Batman.

But as great and interesting as they all indeed are, they cannot compare to the stories that have been handed down to us from antiquity of past heroes of great renown; and of such strength and power, that they would give even Bruce Lee a run for his money. These men, of whom we are exploring, were bodyguards of one of the most famous kings in all of history: King David. And these men were known as his Mighty Men.

There were Five main Men of Valor of David's: The first three men being the famous Mighty Three:

Jashobeam the Hachmonite

Eleazar the Ahohite

Shammah the Hararite

And also:

Abishai son of Zeruiah (King David's Sister), and a brother of Joab (David's first in command.)

Benaiah son of Jehoiada

All famous men of war during the reign of King David, the mightiest warriors in History.

Let us start with the mighty three, and start with Jashobeam:

Jashobeam

(Juh-shoh'bee-uhm);

Hebrew meaning: "The people will return" or "To whom the people turn" or "Turned to." And known as a good handful of other names as well; they are:

1) Jashobeam the Hachmonite, son of Zabdiel.

2) The Tachmonite or Tahkemonite.

3) Josheb-basshebeth: he who sat in the seat.

4) Adino the Eznite: he lifted up his spear.

5) Jessai, son of Achimaas.

6) Jashobeam the Korahite.

Interlinear Bible: 2 Samuel 23: 8 - These are the names of the Mighty Ones who were called to David: Josheb-basshebeth (a) the Tachmonite (b), chief of the Three (c) - he was called Adino (d) the Eznite (e) because of the eight hundred (f) he killed at one time (g).

From this scripture, we will explain each aspect of it, starting with:

(a) Josheb-basshebeth, one of the names by which he was known:

(a) Life Application Bible NKJV: Josheb-basshebeth - Literally "One who sits in the seat."

From this, we can see that this name (Josheb-basshebeth) merely means "one who sits in the seat." It perhaps was not his literal name, but perhaps his station.

(a) Josheb-basshebeth: "The Hebrew of this verse is obscure." Declares the American Standard Version of A.D. 1901. The name was left out of the 1611 King James Version, but the KJV did add in the excerpt "or Iosheb-bassebet the Tachmonite, head of the Three." As was suggested, the name literally means "One who sits in the seat." And we must remember, that the letter "I" in 1611 was interchangable with our modern letter "J," since the letter "J" was not in existence in 1611.

(a) The Interlinear Bible is a parellel of both English and Hebrew, and adds a numbering system that allows you to connect with the famous Strong's Hebrew Dictionary, which will give you several meaning of that one Hebrew word. However, the Interlinear omits a Hebrew corresponding number for reference in the Strong's Hebrew Dictionary for the name: therefore, the translators basically wrote Josheb-basshebeth [Translated: He that sat in the seat] instead of saying "Jashobeam". It was literally a mistake that has stood for centuries. Or was it a mistake? It can also be correct in saying that Jashobeam was one who sat in the seat of authority, for he was second in command of David's Army under Joab, David's Chief. Jashobeam was the captain of all the other captain's ("chief of the Three captains" says 2 Samuel 23:8, and "the head of the Thirty [famous men of valour]" says 1 Chronicles 11:11): He was a famous soldier who held a very high position; and was, perhaps, the toughest in all history, second only to Samson, who alone killed 1000 Philistines with the jawbone of a donkey. Jashobeam is reputed as to alone killing 800 Philistines (900 according to Josephus) with his spear. But this apparent verse problem is explained further in Smith's Bible Dictionary: - "The Tachmonite that sat in the seat," chief among the captains. 2 Sam. 23:8, is in 1 Chron.11:11 called "Jashobeam an Hachmonite," or, as the margin gives it, "son of Hachmoni." Kennicott has shown that the words translated "he that sat in the seat" are a corruption of Jashobeam, and that "The Tachmonite" is a corruption of the "son of Hachmoni," which was the family or local name of Jashobeam. Therefore he concludes "Jashobeam the Hachmonite" to have been the true reading.

 

(a) New International Version: Josheb-basshebeth - Hebrew. Some Septuagint manuscripts suggest Ish-Bosheth; that is, Esh-Baal. [Which is the son of King Saul. And which is highly unlikely - at one time Ish-Bosheth had shown fear: 2 Samuel 4:1 - "When Ish-Bosheth son of Saul heard that Abner had died in Hebron, he lost courage . . . ." Doesn't sound like too much a mighty man of valour.]

(b) New International Version: 2 Samuel 23: 8 - "he raised his spear against eight hundred men, whom he killed in one encounter." as read by some Septuagint manuscripts. Other Hebrew and other Septuagint manuscripts read: "it was Adino the Eznite who killed eight hundred men."

(c) Life Application Bible NKJV: 2 Samuel 23: 8 - Chief among the captains.

Strong's Hebrew Dictionary: Adino - sense of slender; a spear. His spear.

Strong's Hebrew Dictionary: Eznite - To be sharp or strong - a spear.

New International Version: Tahkemonite - Probably a variant of Hacmonite

Interlinear Bible: 1 Chronicles 11:11 - And this is the number of the mighty men who were to David: Jashobeam the son of a Hachmonite, (c) the head of the thirty - he lifted up his spear against three hundred, killing them at one time.

(c) Life Application Bible New King James Version: 1 Chronicles 11:11 - Chief of the captains.

New International Version: Jashobeam - Possibly a variant of Jashob-Baal.

Interlinear Bible: 1 Chronicles 12:1; 12:6 - These were those coming to David to Ziklag, while banned from the face of Saul the son of Kish. And they were among the mighty ones, helping the battle. (6) Elkanah, and Jessiah, and Azarel, and Joezer, and Jashobeam the Korhites.

New International Version and American Standard Version and New World Translation and New King James Version: 1 Chronicles 12:6 - . . . The Korahites.

King James Version: 1 Chronicles 12:6 - . . . The Korhites.

King James Version: 1 Chronicles 9:18-19 - Who hitherto waited in the King's gate eastward: they were porters in the companies of the children of Levi. (19) And Shallum the son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah, and his brethren, of the house of his father, the Korahites, were over the work of the service, keepers of the gates of the tabernacle: and their fathers, being over the host of the Lord, were keepers of the entry.

Webster's Encyclopedia of Dictionaries: Korahites - Descendants of Korah, 1 Chron. 9:19. Korhites, 2 Chron. 20:19. Korathites, Numbers 26: 57-58 - "(57) And these are they that were numbered of the Levites after their families: . . . of Kohath, the family of the Kohathites; . . . (58) These are the families of the Levites . . . the family of the Korathites."

Smith's Bible Dictionary: Korahite, Korhite, or Korathite - That portion of the Kohathites who were descended from Korah. They were an important branch of singers. We find eleven Psalms dedicated or assigned to the sons of Korah - Ps. 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, 88.

Interlinear Bible: 1 Chronicles 27:1-3 - And the sons of Israel, according to their number, the heads of the fathers, and commanders of thousands and hundreds, and their scribes who served the king in every matter of the divisions which came in and went out month by month for all the months of the year - the one division had twenty-four thousand. (2) Over the first division for the first month was Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel. And over his division, twenty-four thousand. (3) The head of all the commanders of the army for the first month was of the sons of Perez.

New International Version: 1 Chronicles 27:2 - In charge of the first division, for the first month, was Jashobeam son of Zabdiel. There were 24,000 men in his division. He was a descendant of Perez and chief of all the army officers for the first month.

Harper's Bible Dictionary: Perez - Hebrew for "a breach". A son of Judah and Tamar; his twin brother was Zerah (Gen. 38:29). From him descended the Perezite branch of the Judah tribe. David was a Perezite and brought prestige to the group. And through this line Perez was an ancestor of Jesus, according to the genealogy found in Matt. 1:3.

Harper's Bible Dictionary: Jashobeam - 1. The son of Zabdiel the Hachmonite. He was commander of David's elite group of thirty fighting men (1 Chron. 11:11), a position apparently also held at one time by Abishai and Amasai (1 Chron. 11:20; 12:18). Jashobeam is credited with killing 300 men in one battle and later became the commander of a division of 24,000 men under King David (1 Chron. 27:2). Some scholars understand Josheb-besshebeth the Tachmonite as a textual variant of the same name (2 Samuel 23:8), while others think he is an entirely different member of David's group. 2. A Levite of the clan of Korah who joined David's fighting men at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:16); he may be the same as 1.

Smith's Bible Dictionary: Jashobeam - Named first among the chief of the mighty men of David. 1 Chron. 11:11 (B.C. 1046). He came to David at Ziklag. His distinguishing exploit was that he slew 300 (or 800, 2 Samuel 23:8) men at one time.

Smith's Bible Dictionary: Hachmoni (wise), son of; and The Hachmonite - 1 Chron. 27:32. Hachmon or Hachmoni was no doubt the founder of a family to which these men belonged: the actual father of Jashobeam was Zabdiel, 1 Chron. 27:2, and he is also said to have belonged to the Korhites. 1 Chron. 12:6. (B.C. before 1046).

 

Smith's Bible Dictionary: Eznite, The - According to the statement of 2 Sam 23:8, Adino the Eznite was another name for Jashobeam, a Tachmonite. 1 Chron. 11:11. (Probably the words are a corruption for the Hebrew "he lifted up his spear."

The Works of Josephus: Antiquites 7.12.4 - "Now all the men that were about David were men of courage. Those that were most illustrious and famous of them for their actions were thirty-eight; of five of whom I will only relate the performances, for these will suffice to make manifest the virtues of the others also; for these were powerful enough to subdue countries, and conquer great nations. First, there was Jessai, the son of Achimaas, who frequently leaped upon the troops of the enemy, and did not leave off fighting till he overthrew nine hundred of them."

A possible mistake on the part of Josephus, who did not spend a lot of time explaining the virtues of David's men, in which therefore he probably did not do a lot of study on this subject. Josephus may have been thinking of Jesiah when he mentions Jessai, who was also a Kohite, and came to David on the same day at Ziklag with Jashobeam to join David's army. Jashobeam and Jesiah may have been closely related.

King James Version: 1 Chronicles 12:6 - Elkanah, and Jesiah, and Azareel, and Joezer, and Jashobeam, the Korhites.

 

 

 

 

 

Eleazar

(El-ee-ay'zer)

Hebrew meaning: "God has helped" or "Help of God".. known as:

Eleazar the Ahohite, son of Dodo

Dodai the Ahohite

Interlinear Bible: 2 Samuel 23: 9-10 - And after him was Eleazar, the son of Dodo(a), the son of Ahohi. He was of the three mighty men with David when they taunted the Philistines when they were gathered there to battle (b); and the men of Israel went up (c): he rose up and struck the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand clung to the sword. And Jehovah worked a great salvation on that day, and the people returned after him only to plunder.

(a) Strong's Hebrew Dictionary: 2 Samuel 23: 9 - . . . . Dodo. From Hebrew word Dowdow, meaning "loving".

(a) Smith's Bible Dictionary: Dodo (loving) - An Ahohite, father of Eleazar.

(b) New World Translation: 2 Samuel 23:9 - "With David at Pas-dammim . . ." In comparison with 1 Chronicles 11: 13

(b) New International Version: 2 Samuel 23:9 - "at Pas-dammim." see 1 Chronicles 11: 13.

(c) New World Translation and New International Version and The New King James Version: 2 Samuel 23:9 - . . . . the men of Israel (had) retreated.

(c) Strong's Hebrew Dictionary: went up - from Hebrew word "alah" (awlaw) which has various meanings. Among them are "up", "depart", "go" and "take away". The army of Israel in this passage left the battlefield, fled, or retreated.

Interlinear Bible: 1 Chronicles 11:12-14 - And after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo (d), the Ahohite; he was among the three mighty ones. He was with David in Pas-dammim (e), and the Philistines had gathered there to battle; and a portion of the field was full of barley (f), and the people had fled from before the Philistines; and they (g) set themselves in the midst of that portion, and delivered it, and struck the Philistines, and Jehovah saved by a great deliverance.

(d) Strong's Hebrew Dictionary: 1 Chronicles 11:12 . . . . Dodo. From Hebrew word Dowdow, meaning "loving".

(e) American Standard Version: Pas-dammim - Ephes-dammim.

(e) Smith's Bible Dictionary: Pas-dammim - Boundary of blood. Ephes-dammim.

(e) Smith's Bible Dictionary: Ephes-dammim - Cessation of bloodshed. A place between Socoh and Arekah, at which the Philistines were encamped before the affray in which Goliath was killed.

(e) Webster's Encyclopedia of Dictionaries: Pas-dammim - Blood border. Spot of battles between Israel and Philistia. Ephes-dammim. The Valley of Elah in which David slew Goliath.

(e) Smith's Bible Dictionary: Elah, the valley of - It lay some where near Socoh of Judah and Azekah, and was nearer Ekron than any other Philistine town.

(f) Harper's Bible Dictionary: Barley - One of the main grain crop in the biblical period. Bread made from barley was the food of lower-income people. Seven weeks elapsed from the beginning of the barley harvest in late April until the completion of the wheat harvest at the beginning of June.

(f) Smith's Bible Dictionary: Barley - It is one of the most important of the cereal grains, and the most hardy of them all. The barley harvest takes place in Palestine in March and April, and in the hilly districts as late as May. It always precedes the wheat harvest in some places by a week, in others by fully three weeks.

(g) American Standard Version, King James Version, New King James Version, New International Version and the Interlinear Version all agree that the word (they) is correct. In other words, that there was more than 1 man that defended the field against the Philistines. And that Eleazar was not alone, that perhaps the other two mighty men were there to help him. However, the New World Translation disagrees, and declares that it was only Eleazar who defended the ground alone against the Philistines - and for good reason, too. With careful observation with the Interlinear Version of the original Hebrew words, there is nothing there to conclude that there was more than 1 man standing on the ground. Unless the Interlinear made a mistake, Eleazar was the only Israelite in battle against the host of Philistines. The word "they" was somehow added into the text of the Interlinear without a Hebrew word to support it. And that would be the only word to make one come to a conclusion that Eleazar was not alone. It perhaps was misunderstood considering how the scriptures flow in this section. However, if we compare this passage with 2 Samuel 23: 9-10 we see that Eleazar was alone on the battlefield against the host of the Philistines; especially considering that both passages were perhaps referring to the same incident that won this man a name amongst the Mighty Three. Therefore, the most logical reasoning is that Eleazar withstood the host of Philistines alone in both passages.

Interlinear Bible: 1 Chronicles 27: 4 - And over the division of the second month was Dodai (h) an Ahohite, and of his division Mikloth was also the ruler; and in his division were twenty-four thousand (i).

(h) Strong's Hebrew Dictionary: 1 Chronicles 11:12 . . . . Dodai. From Hebrew word Dowday (do-dah-ee) meaning "amatory - showing love".

(h) Smith's Bible Dictionary: Dodai (loving, amourous) - An Ahohite who commanded the course of the second month.

(h) Concerning the differences in Dodo and Dodai, it is very obvious that these are names of father and son. Dodai was one of the famous mighty three, and Dodo was his father. We learn this by careful observation of the Hebrew words as shown just above. Some of the Bible Versions have made mistakes concerning this. For instance: American Standard Version and the New International Version have made a mistake in 2 Samuel 23:9 on the name Dodai for being the father, when it should have mentioned Dodo as being the father. And the New International Version has made a mistake again in 1 Chronicles 11:12 on making Dodai the father's name when Dodo should have been listed in this as well. Only the King James Version, New King James Version, New World Translation and Interlinear Version has correctly placed the names of father and son. However, all Versions agree (in 1 Chronicles 27: 4) that Dodai the Ahohite was the main leader over the course of the second month - this man listed here is surely Eleazar, Dodai the Ahohite, son of Dodo.

(i) Just above this scripture, we read (1 Chronicles 27:1): "And the sons of Israel, according to their number, the heads of the fathers, and commanders of thousands and hundreds, and their scribes who served the king in every matter of the divisions which came in and went out month by month for all the months of the year - the one division had twenty-four thousand."

Smith's Bible Dictionary: Eleazar - One of the three principal mighty men of David's Army. (B.C. 1046).

The Works of Josephus: Antiquites 7.12.4 - "After him was Eleazar, the son of Dodo, was with the king at Arasam. This man, when once the Israelites were under a consternation at the multitude of the Philistines, and were running away, stood alone, and fell upon the enemy, and slew many of them, till his sword clung to his hand by the blood he had shed, and till the Israelites, seeing the Philistines retire by his means, came down from the mountains and pursued them, and at that time won a surprising and a famous victory, while Eleazar slew the men, and the multitude followed and spoiled their dead bodies."

 

 

to be continued . . . .

 

 

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