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Discoverers of New Worlds!

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CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS

Credited with the discovery of America - or, the New World!

 

 

 

AMERIGO VESPUCCI

Of whom America is named after!

 

 

 

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE

Pirate, Privateer, Discoverer!

 

 

 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH

English Sailor and Discoverer!

 

 

 

LEIF ERICSON - VIKING EXPLORER

Said to have discovered America, long before Columbus!

 

 

 

DISCOVERING THE NEW WORLD IN FILM

National Geographic: America Before Columbus

Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (c. 1451 – 20 May 1506) was a Genoese - Italian navigator, colonizer, and explorer whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. With his four voyages of exploration and several attempts at establishing a settlement on the island of Hispaniola, all funded by Isabella I of Castile, he initiated the process of Spanish colonization which foreshadowed general European colonization of the "New World".

Although not the first to reach the Americas from Europe—he was preceded by at least one other group, the Norse, led by Leif Ericson, who built a temporary settlement 500 years earlier at L'Anse aux Meadows— Columbus initiated widespread contact between Europeans and indigenous Americans.

The term "pre-Columbian" is usually used to refer to the peoples and cultures of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus and his European successors.

The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. The original name in 15th century Genoese language was Christoffa Corombo (pronounced [kriˈʃtɔffa kuˈɹuŋbu]). The name is rendered in modern Italian as Cristoforo Colombo, in Portuguese as Cristóvão Colombo (formerly Christovam Colom), in Catalan as Cristòfor Colom, and in Spanish as Cristóbal Colón.

Columbus's initial 1492 voyage came at a critical time of growing national imperialism and economic competition between developing nation states seeking wealth from the establishment of trade routes and colonies. In this sociopolitical climate, Columbus's far-fetched scheme won the attention of Isabella I of Castile. Severely underestimating the circumference of the Earth, he estimated that a westward route from Iberia to the Indies would be shorter than the overland trade route through Arabia. If true, this would allow Spain entry into the lucrative spice trade — heretofore commanded by the Arabs and Italians. Following his plotted course, he instead landed within the Bahamas Archipelago at a locale he named San Salvador. Mistaking the lands he encountered for the East Indies, he referred to the inhabitants as "indios".There is a linguistic urban legend that he actually named them "una gente in Dios", (a people in God), and that in 1492 India was called Hindustan, but he never used the phrase "una gente in Dios" and India had been called India for centuries and the name 'Hindustan' did not become common until some time after Columbus.

The anniversary of Columbus's 1492 landing in the Americas is usually observed as Columbus Day on 12 October in Spain and throughout the Americas, except Canada. In the United States it is observed annually on the second Monday in October.

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Christopher Columbus: The Discovery (1992) [VHS]Christopher Columbus: The Discovery (1992) [VHS]
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Biography - Christopher Columbus [VHS]Biography - Christopher Columbus [VHS]
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Christopher Columbus (1985) [VHS]Christopher Columbus (1985) [VHS]
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Christopher Columbus/The Discovery of the New World [VHS]Christopher Columbus/The Discovery of the New World [VHS]
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Great Adventurers: Christopher Columbus [VHS]Great Adventurers: Christopher Columbus [VHS]
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Christopher Columbus: Discovery (Spanish) [VHS]Christopher Columbus: Discovery (Spanish) [VHS]
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1492 - Conquest of Paradise [VHS]1492 - Conquest of Paradise [VHS]
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Christopher Columbus and The Great Adventure - Spanish Narration [VHS]Christopher Columbus and The Great Adventure - Spanish Narration [VHS] by Ed Dubrowsky
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Christopher Columbus and The Great Adventure [VHS]Christopher Columbus and The Great Adventure [VHS] by Documentary
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History Makers: Christopher Columbus [VHS]History Makers: Christopher Columbus [VHS] by History Makers
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Christopher Columbus: The Discovery - Original Motion Picture SoundtrackChristopher Columbus: The Discovery - Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
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Offenbach: Christopher ColumbusOffenbach: Christopher Columbus by Jacques Offenbach
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Eugene Zador: Christopher Columbus; Studies for OrchestraEugene Zador: Christopher Columbus; Studies for Orchestra
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1492: Conquest of Paradise - Original Motion Picture Soundtrack1492: Conquest of Paradise - Original Motion Picture Soundtrack by Vangelis
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Music of the Americas, 1492-1992Music of the Americas, 1492-1992
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1492 Conquest of Paradise: Music of Vangelis1492 Conquest of Paradise: Music of Vangelis by Various Artists
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El Secreto De Cristobal Colon/ The Secret of Cristobal Columbus (Leer En Espanol, Level 3) (Spanish Edition)El Secreto De Cristobal Colon/ The Secret of Cristobal Columbus (Leer En Espanol, Level 3) (Spanish Edition) by Luis Maria Carrero
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Amerigo Vespucci

Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 – February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, navigator and cartographer. The continents of North America and South America are popularly believed to have derived its name from the feminized Latin version of his first name.

Columbus never thought Vespucci had tried to steal his laurels, and in 1505 he wrote his son, Diego, saying of Amerigo, "It has always been his wish to please me; he is a man of good will; fortune has been unkind to him as to others; his labors have not brought him the rewards he in justice should have."

In 1508, after only two voyages to the Americas, the position of chief of navigation of Spain (piloto mayor de Indias) was created for Vespucci, with the responsibility of planning navigation for voyages to the Indies.

Two letters attributed to Vespucci were published during his lifetime. Mundus Novus (New World) was a Latin translation of a lost Italian letter sent from Lisbon to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici. It describes a voyage to South America in 1501-1502. Mundus Novus was published in late 1502 or early 1503 and soon reprinted and distributed in numerous European countries. Lettera di Amerigo Vespucci delle isole nuovamente trovate in quattro suoi viaggi (Letter of Amerigo Vespucci concerning the isles newly discovered on his four voyages), known as Lettera al Soderini or just Lettera, was a letter in Italian addressed to Piero Soderini. Printed in 1504 or 1505, it claimed to be an account of four voyages to the Americas made by Vespucci between 1497 and 1504. A Latin translation was published by the German Martin Waldseemüller in 1507 in Cosmographiae Introductio, a book on cosmography and geography, as Quattuor Americi Vespuccij navigationes (Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci).

In 1508, King Ferdinand made Vespucci chief navigator of Spain at a huge salary and commissioned him to found a school of navigation, in order to standardize and modernize navigation techniques used by Iberian sea captains then exploring the world. Vespucci even developed a rudimentary, but fairly accurate method of determining longitude (which only more accurate chronometers would later improve upon).

In the 18th century three unpublished familiar letters from Vespucci to Lorenzo de' Medici were rediscovered. One describes a voyage made in 1499-1500 which corresponds with the second of the "four voyages". Another was written from Cape Verde in 1501 in the early part of the third of the four voyages, before crossing the Atlantic. The third letter was sent from Lisbon after the completion of that voyage.

Some have suggested that Vespucci, in the two letters published in his lifetime, was exaggerating his role and constructed deliberate fabrications. However, many scholars now believe that the two letters were not written by him but were fabrications by others based in part on genuine letters by Vespucci. It was the publication and widespread circulation of the letters that might have led Martin Waldseemüller to name the new continent America on his world map of 1507 in Lorraine. Vespucci used a Latinised form of his name, Americus Vespucius, in his Latin writings, which Waldseemüller may have used as a base for the new name, taking the feminine form America. (Although there are other hypotheses; see Naming of America.) Amerigo itself is an Italian form of the medieval Latin Emericus (see also Saint Emeric of Hungary), which through the German form Heinrich (in English, Henry) derived from the Germanic name Haimirich.

The two disputed letters claim that Vespucci made four voyages to America, while at most two can be verified from other sources. At the moment there is a dispute between historians on when Vespucci visited mainland the first time. Some historians like German Arciniegas and Gabriel Camargo Perez think that his first voyage was done in June 1497 with the Spanish Pilot Juan de la Cosa. Vespucci's real historical importance may well rest more in his letters, whether he wrote them all or not, than in his discoveries. From these letters, the European public learned about the newly discovered continent of the Americas for the first time; its existence became generally known throughout Europe within a few years of the letters' publication. He died on February 22, 1512 in Seville, Spain, of an unknown cause.

First Voyage

A letter published in 1504 purports to be an account by Vespucci, written to Soderini, of a lengthy visit to the New World, leaving Spain in May 1497 and returning in October 1498. However, modern scholars have doubted that this voyage took place, and consider this letter a forgery. Whoever did write the letter makes several observations of native customs, including use of hammocks and sweat lodges.

Second Voyage

About the 1499–1500, Vespucci joined an expedition in the service of Spain, with Alonso de Ojeda (or Hojeda) as the fleet commander. The intention was to sail around the southern end of the African mainland into the Indian Ocean. After hitting land at the coast of what is now Guyana, the two seem to have separated. Vespucci sailed southward, discovering the mouth of the Amazon River and reaching 6°S, before turning around and seeing Trinidad and the Orinoco River and returning to Spain by way of Hispaniola. The letter, to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, claims that Vespucci determined his longitude celestially on August 23, 1499, while on this voyage. However, that claim may be fraudulent, which could cast doubt on the letter's credibility.

Third voyage

The last certain voyage of Vespucci was led by Gonçalo Coelho in 1501–1502 in the service of Portugal. Departing from Lisbon, the fleet sailed first to Cape Verde where they met two of Pedro Álvares Cabral's ships returning from India. In a letter from Cape Verde, Vespucci says that he hopes to visit the same lands that Álvares Cabral had explored, suggesting that the intention is to sail west to Asia, as on the 1499-1500 voyage. On reaching the coast of Brazil, they sailed south along the coast of South America to Rio de Janeiro's bay. If his own account is to be believed, he reached the latitude of Patagonia before turning back, although this also seems doubtful, since his account does not mention the broad estuary of the Río de la Plata, which he must have seen if he had gotten that far south. Portuguese maps of South America, created after the voyage of Coelho and Vespucci, do not show any land south of present-day Cananéia at 25° S, so this may represent the southernmost extent of their voyages.

After the first half of the expedition, Vespucci mapped Alpha and Beta Centauri, as well as the constellation Crux, the Southern Cross. Although these stars had been known to the ancient Greeks, gradual precession had lowered them below the European horizon so that they had been forgotten. On his return to Lisbon, Vespucci wrote in a letter to d'Medici that the land masses they explored were much larger than anticipated and different from the Asia described by Ptolemy or Marco Polo and therefore, must be a New World, that is, a previously unknown fourth continent, after Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Fourth voyage

Little is known of his last voyage in 1503–1504 or even whether it actually took place.

Vespucci died from malaria in Seville in 1512.

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Sir Francis Drake

1590 or later Marcus Gheeraerts, Sir Francis Drake Buckland Abbey, Devon.jpg

Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral (1540 – 27 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, a renowned pirate, and politician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588, subordinate only to Charles Howard and the Queen herself. He died of dysentery in January 1596 after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico.

His exploits were legendary, making him a hero to the English but a pirate to the Spaniards to whom he was known as El Draque, 'Draque' being the Spanish pronunciation of 'Drake'. His name in Latin was Franciscus Draco ('Francis the Dragon'). King Philip II was claimed to have offered a reward of 20,000 ducats, about £4,000,000 (US$6.5M) by modern standards, for his life.

He is famous for (among other things) leading the first English circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580.

 

Entering the Pacific

With the success of the Panama isthmus raid, in 1577 Elizabeth I of England sent Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. He set out from Plymouth on 15 November 1577, but bad weather threatened him and his fleet, who were forced to take refuge in Falmouth, Cornwall, from where they returned to Plymouth for repair. After this major setback, he set sail once again on the 13th of December, aboard Pelican, with four other ships and 164 men. He soon added a sixth ship, Mary (formerly Santa Maria) a Portuguese merchant ship that had been captured off the coast of Africa near the Cape Verde Islands. More importantly, he added its captain, Nuno da Silva, a man with considerable experience navigating in South American waters.

Drake's fleet suffered great attrition; he scuttled both Christopher and the flyboat Swan due to loss of men on the Atlantic crossing. He then made landfall at the gloomy bay of San Julian, in what is now Argentina. Ferdinand Magellan had called here half a century earlier and here he had put to death some mutineers. Drake's men saw weathered and bleached skeletons on the grim Spanish gibbets. Here Mary was found to be rotten and was burned. Drake, following Magellan's example, tried and executed his own 'mutineer' Thomas Doughty. Drake then decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Strait of Magellan.

The three remaining ships of his convoy departed for the Magellan Strait, at the southern tip of South America. A few weeks later (September 1578) Drake made it to the Pacific, but violent storms destroyed one of the three ships in the strait and caused another to return to England, leaving only the Pelican. After this passage the Pelican was pushed south, and Drake, like navigators before him, probably reached a latitude of 55°S (according to astronomical data quoted in Hakluyt's The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation of 1589) along the Chilean coast. Despite popular lore, it seems unlikely that he reached Cape Horn or the eponymous Drake Passage, because his descriptions do not fit the first and his shipmates denied having seen an open sea, while the first report of his discovery of an open channel south of Tierra del Fuego was written after the 1618 publication of the voyage of Willem Schouten and Jacob le Maire around Cape Horn in 1616.

He pushed onwards in his lone flagship, now renamed the Golden Hind in honour of Sir Christopher Hatton (after his coat of arms). The Golden Hind sailed north along the Pacific coast of South America, attacking Spanish ports and rifling towns. Some Spanish ships were captured, and Drake used their more accurate charts. Before reaching the coast of Peru, Drake visited Mocha Island where he was seriously injured by hostile Mapuches. Later he sacked the port of Valparaíso further north in Chile.

A most consequential action

Near Lima, Drake captured a Spanish ship laden with 25,000 pesos of Peruvian gold, amounting in value to 37,000 ducats of Spanish money (about £7m by modern standards). Drake also discovered news of another ship, Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, which was sailing west towards Manila. It would come to be called the Cacafuego. Drake gave chase and eventually captured the treasure ship which proved their most profitable capture. Aboard Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, Drake found 80 lb (36 kg) of gold, a golden crucifix, jewels, 13 chests full of royals of plate and 26 tons of silver.

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Nova Albion:

On 17 June 1579, Drake landed somewhere north of Spain's northern-most claim at Point Loma. He found a good port, landed, repaired and restocked his vessels, then stayed for a time, keeping friendly relations with the natives. He claimed the land in the name of the Holy Trinity for the English Crown as called Nova Albion—Latin for "New Britain". Assertions that he left some of his men behind as an embryo "colony" are founded merely on the reduced number who were with him in the Moluccas

The precise location of the port was carefully guarded to keep it secret from the Spaniards, and several of Drake's maps may even have been altered to this end. All first-hand records from the voyage, including logs, paintings and charts were lost when Whitehall Palace burned in 1698. A bronze plaque inscribed with Drake's claim to the new lands -Drake's Plate of Brass- fitting the description in Drake's own account was discovered in Marin County, California, but was later declared a hoax. Another location often claimed to be Nova Albion is Whale Cove, Oregon, although to date there is no evidence to suggest this, other than a general resemblance to a single map penned a decade after the landing.

Samuel Bawlf marshaled indications that "Nova Albion" was established at Comox on Vancouver Island, during an undocumented "secret voyage" north. It is known that Drake and his men sailed north from Nova Albion in search of a western opening to the Northwest Passage, a potentially valuable asset to the English at the time. During this venture the sailors accurately mapped the westward trend of the north-western corner of the North American continent, present-day British Columbia and Alaska. They had a rough voyage among the islands of the Alaskan panhandle, and were forced to turn back due to freezing weather.

Bawlf argues that Drake's ship reached 56°N, much farther north than was recorded. The reason for this false record, Bawlf writes, was for political reasons: competition with the Spanish in the Americas. Queen Elizabeth wanted to keep any information on the Northwest Passage secret, with the result that the location of Nova Albion and the highest latitude the expedition reached is still a source of controversy today. Drake's brother endured a long period of torture in South America at the hands of Spaniards, who sought intelligence from him about Francis Drake's voyage.

His voyage to the west coast of North America is important for a number of reasons. When he landed, his chaplain held Holy Communion; this was one of the first Protestant church services in the New World (though French Huguenots had founded an ill-fated colony in Florida in the 1560s). Drake was seen to be gaining prestige at the expense of the Papacy.

What is certain of the extent of Drake's claim and territorial challenge to the Papacy and the Spanish crown is that his port was founded somewhere north of Point Loma; that all contemporary maps label all lands above the Kingdoms of New Spain and New Mexico as "Nova Albion", and that all colonial claims made from the East Coast in the 1600s were "From Sea to Sea". The colonial claims were established with full knowledge of Drake's claims, which they reinforced, and remained valid in the minds of the English colonists on the Atlantic coast when those colonies became free states. Maps made soon after would have "Nova Albion" written above the entire northern frontier of New Spain. These territorial claims became important during the negotiations that ended the Mexican–American War between the United States and Mexico.

Garry Gitzen's "Francis Drake in Nehalem Bay 1579, Setting the Historical Record Straight" disputes all other hypothesized landing sites by comparing ethnographic, language, floral, fauna, geography, topography and a sixteen century survey land claim that Drake made. Gitzen states, "Drake never set foot in California as we know it today." The Oregon Archeological Society Newsletter December 2008 describes the book as "magnificent and without parallel."

Drake now headed westward across the Pacific, and a few months later reached the Moluccas, a group of islands in the south west Pacific, in eastern modern-day Indonesia. While there, Golden Hind became caught on a reef and was almost lost. After three days of waiting for expedient tides and dumping cargo, the barque was freed. Drake and his men befriended a sultan king of the Moluccas and involved themselves in some intrigues with the Portuguese there. He made multiple stops on his way toward the tip of Africa, eventually rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and reached Sierra Leone by 22 July 1580.

 

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Sir Walter Raleigh

 

Sir Walter Raleigh (c. 1552 – 29 October 1618) was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, and explorer who is also largely known for popularising tobacco in England.

Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in Devon, the son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine Champernowne. Little is known for certain of his early life, though he spent some time in Ireland, in Killua Castle, Clonmellon, County Westmeath, taking part in the suppression of rebellions and participating in two infamous massacres at Rathlin Island and Smerwick. Later he became a landlord of properties confiscated from the Irish. He rose rapidly in Queen Elizabeth I's favour, being knighted in 1585. He was involved in the early English colonization of Virginia under a royal patent. In 1591 he secretly married Elizabeth Throckmorton, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, without the Queen's permission, for which he and his wife were sent to the Tower of London. After his release, they retired to his estate at Sherborne, Dorset.

In 1594 Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado". After Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, Raleigh was again imprisoned in the Tower, this time for allegedly being involved in the Main Plot against King James I, who was not favourably disposed toward him. In 1616, however, he was released in order to conduct a second expedition in search of El Dorado. This was unsuccessful and men under his command ransacked a Spanish outpost. He returned to England, and to appease the Spanish was arrested and executed in 1618.

 

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Leif Ericson - Viking Explorer!

File:Leifur Erikson.jpg 

Leif Ericson (Old Norse: Leifr Eiríksson) (c. 970 – c. 1020) was a Norse explorer who is regarded as the first European to land in North America (excluding Greenland), nearly five hundred years before Christopher Columbus. According to the Sagas of Icelanders, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland, which has been tentatively identified with the L'Anse aux Meadows Norse site on the northern tip of the island of Newfoundland in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

It is believed that Leif was born about AD 970 in Iceland, the son of Erik Thorvaldsson known as Erik the Red (Old Norse: Eiríkr inn rauði), a Norse explorer from Western Norway, an outlaw and himself the son of an outlaw, Thorvald Asvaldsson. Leif's mother was Thjodhild (Þjóðhildr). Erik the Red founded two Norse colonies in Greenland, the Western Settlement and the Eastern Settlement, as he named them. In both Eiríks saga rauða and Landnáma, Leif's father is said to have met and married Leif's mother Thjodhild in Iceland; the site of Leif's birth is not known.

Leif Ericson had two brothers, Thorvald and Thorsteinn, and one half sister, Freydís. He married a woman named Thorgunna, and they had one son, Thorkell Leifsson.

 

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Discovering the New World in Film!

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Selections from our Swash-Store:
National Geographic: America Before ColumbusNational Geographic: America Before Columbus by Artist Not Provided
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Disappointing documentary that should have been titled NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE AFTER COLUMBUS.
1492 - Conquest of Paradise (Widescreen Edition) [VHS]1492 - Conquest of Paradise (Widescreen Edition) [VHS]
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Beautifully filmed spectacle about Christopher Columbus, the second (and best) of two film bios released in 1992 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the Genoese navigator's first voyage to America. Directed by Ridley Scott.
Columbus: The Lost Voyage (History Channel)Columbus: The Lost Voyage (History Channel)
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History Channel documentary about Columbus' disasterous fourth voyage to the Americas.
Just The Facts: The Age of DiscoveryJust The Facts: The Age of Discovery
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Short documentary that profiles a number of explorers, several of whom made important voyages to the Americas.
Mel Gibson's Apocalypto (Widescreen Edition)Mel Gibson's Apocalypto (Widescreen Edition)
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A young hunter who was to be sacrificed to the Mayan gods narrowly escapes death and races home to be reunited with his wife and child, with his pursuers hot on his trail.
ConquistadorsConquistadors
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PBS documentary hosted by historian Michael Wood. No exciting re-enactments here but educational and highly entertaining nonetheless.
Ancient Mysteries - The Quest for the Fountain of YouthAncient Mysteries - The Quest for the Fountain of Youth
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Was Ponce de Leon truly searching for the fabled fountain of youth or was he only interested in finding gold and glory as some experts now believe?
Captain From CastileCaptain From Castile
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Swashbuckling romantic adventure about a Spanish nobleman who escapes the wrath of the Inquisition by joining Hernan Cortez' expedition to conquer the Aztec empire.
The Other Conquest (La Otra Conquista)The Other Conquest (La Otra Conquista)
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Mexican-made drama about Cortez' suppression of the Aztec religion and its impact on the native people.
Cabeza De Vaca [VHS]Cabeza De Vaca [VHS]
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An earlier Mexican import that deals with Spanish adventurer Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca's treacherous journey through the American continent and his enslavement to the Indian tribe he grows to love after having been shipwrecked off the coast of Florida in 1528.
New World (Nuevo Mundo)New World (Nuevo Mundo)
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Controversial, Spanish language drama set in 16th-century Mexico about a Catholic priest and an artist who - in order to easily convert the conquered Aztec population - create an icon of the Virgin Mary that resembles a native goddess.
Royal Hunt of the SunRoyal Hunt of the Sun
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Francisco Pizarro's ruthless conquest of the mighty Incan empire.
Aguirre, the Wrath of GodAguirre, the Wrath of God
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A haunting German production depicting Spanish conquistador Don Lope de Aguirre's mad quest to find the mythical city of El Dorado.
How Tasty Was My Little FrenchmanHow Tasty Was My Little Frenchman
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Brazilian black comedy about a 16th-century French explorer who tries to learn the ways of the tribe of cannibals who have captured him.
Lost Colony of Roanoke [VHS]Lost Colony of Roanoke [VHS]
Documentary that explores the mystery surrounding the disappearance of Britain's first American colony.
Conquest of America (History Channel)Conquest of America (History Channel)
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Despite the title, this 4-part documentary covers only those adventurers who explored regions of the Americas that now make up the United States. These were: Francisco Coronado, Jean Ribault, Henry Hudson and Vitus Bering.
The New WorldThe New World
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Epic retelling of the legendary relationship between Captain John Smith and Pocahontas.
Desperate Crossing: The Untold Story of the MayflowerDesperate Crossing: The Untold Story of the Mayflower
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Superb film documentary (from The History Channel) about the Pilgrims.
Squanto: A Warrior's TaleSquanto: A Warrior's Tale
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Highly fictionalized but entertaining family adventure inspired by true events about the title character's kidnapping to England by traders and his escape and eventual return to America.
Black RobeBlack Robe
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The faith of a young 17th-century French priest is tested when he is captured and brutalized by hostile Indians while crossing the Canadian wilderness to convert another tribe.
Brazil: An Inconvenient HistoryBrazil: An Inconvenient History
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Interesting but depressing British-made documentary about the slave trade in Brazil, mostly during colonial times.
QuilomboQuilombo
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Moving, fact-based drama about the black slave revolts in 17th-century Brazil.
The Scarlet LetterThe Scarlet Letter
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Lavishly produced but disappointing film adaptation of Nathanial Hawthorne's classic tale of adultery and repentance in 17th-century Puritan Massachusetts.
Father Kino StoryFather Kino Story
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The story of Eusebio Francisco Kino, a Roman Catholic priest who helped Christianize the Native American population of what is now northern Mexico during the late 17th century.
The CrucibleThe Crucible
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The infamous Salem witch hunts. Adapted for the screen by Arthur Miller from his own play.
True Caribbean Pirates (History Channel)True Caribbean Pirates (History Channel)
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Henry Morgan, Blackbeard, Ann Bonny and Mary Read are some of the infamous cutthroats featured in this exciting documentary from The History Channel.
The Mission (Two-Disc Special Edition)The Mission (Two-Disc Special Edition)
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A Spanish Jesuit priest and a former mercenary in 18th-century South America join together to build a mission to help convert the native Guarani Indians as well as provide shelter for them, but their plans are soon threatened when the pope orders that the mission be closed, an act that would leave the Guarani vulnerable to slave traders.
Xica [VHS]Xica [VHS]
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 NEW MUSKETEER NOVEL NOW AVAILABLE TO BUY!

CLICK HERE for Plot Details, and to Read the Introduction and First Three Chapters!

 AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE FROM VARIOUS ONLINE BOOKSTORES, INCLUDING Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble, Books-A-Million & GoHastings.com

IN HIGH QUALITY TRADE PAPERBACK, OR AMAZON KINDLE EBOOK! - CLICK THE FOLLOWING PICS TO PURCHASE @ AMAZON.COM:

 

Product Details (From Amazon.com)

  • Paperback: 350 pages
  • Publisher: CreateSpace (November 30, 2009)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1449913172
  • ISBN-13: 978-1449913175
  • Product Dimensions: 9 x 6 x 0.9 inches
  • Shipping Weight: 1.3 pounds

 

READ WHAT OTHERS HAVE TO SAY ABOUT DONAREE:

"Nicely done. I really enjoyed the history in the introduction and the duel is well written. Best of luck with the novel!" ~ Author David Lee Summers, author of five books: Vampires of the Scarlet Order, The Solar Sea, and the "Old Star" science fiction series: The Pirates of Sufiro, Children of the Old Stars, and Heirs of the New Earth. www.davidleesummers.com

"Very exciting read! Felt like I was there witnessing the action!" ~ Candle Artist Jfay,
www.studio3bonline.com

"I really enjoyed the humour and really laughed, not at Monsieur de la Donaree but with Monsieur de la Donaree! I dont know if you wrote it in this spirit but if you had a bit of Molière in you, I would not be surprised! He knew how to study people and would turn situations into a comic play! I laughed out loud, this is a gem! Not only de la Donaree is a fine sword, he has also a fine nose when it comes to pinpoint personalities, I'm talking about the Inkeeper and his situation with the wife here!! The second part is indeed in pure swashbuckling spirit, in rhythm and enthusiasm! And the end is a cliff-hanger! The beginning is "cocasse" (funny) as they might have said then in Gascony, and witty! Indeed Alexandre Dumas had a sense of humour too and satirically created at least one of his character ( in another book) to a character made up by Molière in one of his comic play. And Molière also took his inspiration from Dumas' s Musketeers and "The Man in the Iron Mask." I liked it! I had fun while reading this chapter about Monsieur de la Donaree, as while following the spirit of the Musketeers you gave a contemporary touch to the text!" ~ Artist Nicole Marques,
www.myspace.com/nicolemarques

"Hurrah, Ted! I gleefully await the next installment! LOVE the romantic stuff! Bring it on! There are few things in this world I like better than a hot Viscount. Keep going, Ted! Bravo! Keep writing! I can't wait to read more! But it is par for the course as I am also a writer. Keep in touch!" ~ Author Genella de Grey, author of "Remember Me."
www.genelladegrey.com

"Wow - What a wonderful beginning. As a whole, you have a unique way of writing & you captivated me by a few sentences peaking my interest to continue. For instance: ...hazed by the early morning mist...I love it! I look forward to reading the next chapter. You've gained my interest. That was impresive & informative. You've still got the hook in & I'm dangling to hear more. Thanks for the sneak peak." ~ Aspiring Author R.F.Taylor: Rianna

"Well done. Chapter One entices the reader craving more. I will look for The Adventures of Monsieur de La Donaree the Musketeer on the web. Keep up the excellent writing..." ~
Ferf