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The Romans

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The ROMANS Main Menu

 

THE HISTORY OF ROME

 

 

THE CAESARS [Coming Soon]

 

 

CAESAR NERO - THE BEAST OF REVELATION??

 

 

TERRIBLE CATASTROPHIES LEADING UP TO THE GREAT JEWISH WARS

 

 

THE WAR AGAINST THE JEWS OF A.D. 70 & FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS [Coming Soon]

 

 

TACITUS, THE FAMOUS HISTORIAN [Coming Soon]

 

 

THE ROMAN SOLDIER - MODEL OF THE IDEAL WARRIOR [Coming Soon]

 

 

GLADIATORS [Coming Soon]

 

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The History of Rome

 

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The history of Rome spans 2,800 years of the existence of a city that grew from a small Italian village in the 9th century BC into the center of a vast civilization that dominated the Mediterranean region for centuries. Its political power was eventually replaced by that of peoples of mostly Germanic origin, marking the beginning of the Middle Ages. Rome became the seat of the Roman Catholic Church and the home of a sovereign state, the Vatican City, within its walls. Today it is the capital of Italy, an international worldwide political and cultural centre, a major global city, and is regarded as one of the most beautiful cities of the ancient world.

The traditional date for the founding of Rome, based on a mythological account, is 21 April 753 BC, and the city and surrounding region of Latium has continued to be inhabited with little interruption since around that time.

 

 

Next article by: Mike Gascoigne, Historian and Author,

From: http://www.annomundi.com/history/index.htm:

Foundation of Rome

Atlas Italus, who overthrew Altheus and usurped his kingdom in Italy, had a daughter called Rhoma, and appointed her as duchess of the people and nation called the Aborigines. She was married to a prince of Tuscany and they had a son called Rhomanessos, who was the first that ever laid the foundation of the city of Rome (according to an author called Sempronius). This disposes of the notion that the city was founded by Romulus at a much later date. It is true that Romulus enlarged and beautified the city, but he was not its founder. He came to the city by accident, and he did not name it after himself, instead he named himself after the city.

 

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CAESAR NERO - THE BEAST OF REVELATION??

 

 

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
As we consider the proper interpretation, it will be necessary to remember that John allows some shifting in his imagery of the Beast! The one Beast has seven heads (Rev. 13:1; 17:3), which at some places are seven kings collectively considered (Rev. 17:9-10a), or seven kings who arise in chronological succession (Rev. 17: 10b-1 1). Thus, the Beast is generically portrayed as a kingdom. But in the very same contexts the Beast is spoken of as an individual (he is a man with a specific name, Rev. 13:18) and as but one head among the seven (Rev. 17:11). This unusual feature, as noted before, is recognized by a number of commentators.


WORSHIP OF THE BEAST

Revelation 13:4b
… and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him?  [8] And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

Caesars (of whom our time-table is concerned with):
Julius Caesar, 49 - 44 B.C.
Agustus, 31 B.C. – A.D. 14
Tiberius, A.D. 14 – 37
Gaius (Caligua), A.D. 37-41
Claudius, A.D. A.D. 41-54
Nero, A.D. 54-68
Galba, A.D. 68-69
Otho, A.D. 69
Vitellius, A.D. 69
Vespasian, A.D. 69-79
Titus, A.D. 79-81
Domitian, A.D. 81-96

 

Were they worshipped?


Julius Caesar:

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
Emperor worship had its roots in the rule of Julius Caesar, the first emperor of Rome. As a matter of fact, Julius was granted by the Roman Senate the title “Jupiter Julius.” This act put him on a level with Jupiter, the leading god among the Romans. The evidence for emperor worship does not end here, however. Archaeologists have discovered an interesting inscription at Ephesus, one of the very cities to which Revelation is addressed. Julius was described in this inscription as “god manifest and common savior of the life of man.” His statue was placed in the temple of Quirinius, and was inscribed: “To the invincible God.” Roman historian Suetonius notes in this regard that “he allowed honors to be bestowed on him which were too great for mortal man … temples, altars, and statues beside those of the gods; a special priest, an additional college of the Superci, and the calling of one of the months by his name. After Julius’s death the Roman Senate voted him into the company of the gods. From that time forth he began to be called “Divus Iulius,” that is, “divine Julius.” In addition, a formal cult of Divus Iulius was established and “an altar to him was erected in the forum.”


Augustus Caesar (Octavian)

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
Although Rome’s second emperor, Augustus, forbade divine honors to himself in Rome, the Roman historians Tacitus and Suetonius note that he sanctioned his worship and the erection of altars elsewhere. Even as early as 29 B.C., Augustus allowed such, giving the annually elected high priest of the cult much dignity in the provinces. … BeckWith notes that on his death the Senate voted Augustus among the gods and that a temple was erected in the Palatine area of Rome. Furthermore “his worship spread rapidly in both the Asian and western provinces, so that the Jewish philosopher Philo (20 B.C.-A.D. 50) could say, that ‘everywhere honors were decreed to him equal to those of the Olympian gods.’”

A decree of the Synod of the Province of Asia, 9 B.C.:
“… He has given another aspect to the universe, which was only too ready to perish, had not Caesar [Agustus] -- a blessing to the whole of mankind – been born. For which reason each individual may justly look upon this day as the beginning of his own life and physical being, because there can be no more of the feeling that life is a burden, now that he has been born. . . . Augustus, whom it fitted for his beneficent work among mankind by filling him with virtue, sending him as a Savior, for us and for those who come after us, one who should cause wars to cease, who should set all things in fair order, and whereas Caesar, when he appeared, made the hopes of those who forecast a better future. in that he not only surpassed all previous benefactors, but left no chance for future ones to go beyond him, and the glad tidings which by his means went forth into the world took its rise in the birthday of the God.”


Tiberius Caesar

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
The third emperor of Rome was Tiberius. It is in response to just this issue – emperor worship — that Christ’s remarks during the reign of Tiberius regarding the tribute money must be understood (Matt. 22:15-22; Mark 12:13-17; Luke 20:20-26). Here Christ taught that lovers of the true God should “render unto God” those things which are God’s (i.e. worship), and only “render unto Caesar” those things which are rightfully his (i.e. taxes). This clearly is a tacit protest against emperor worship under Tiberius (ruled A.D. 14-37). … At Tiberius’s death “eleven cities of Asia struggled for the honor of erecting a temple to his memory.” The Senate finally awarded the temple to Smyrna, one of the seven cities to which one of the Seven Letters in Revelation was written.


Gaius (“Caligula”) Caesar

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
The fourth Roman emperor was Gaius Caesar, also known by his nickname “Caligula.” Gaius was clearly a madman possessed with the conviction of his own deity. He placed the head of his own statue on that of Jupiter, had himself saluted as Jupiter, and had temples erected to himself. The Jewish historian Josephus records the deluded pretensions of Gaius (here spelled: “Caius”): “All who were subject to the Roman empire built altars and temples to Caius, and in other regards universally received him as they received the gods.” His infamous plan to have his image erected in the temple at Jerusalem and the providential prevention of it is well-known, thanks to Josephus. That attempt, prevented by his death, would certainly have issued forth a war with the Jews.


Claudius Caesar

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
The fifth emperor, the immediate forerunner of Nero, was Claudius Caesar. Suetonius and Tacitus both record the up and down position of Olaudius as a god. He was voted a god upon his death only to have his enrollment among the gods denied by Nero but later restored by Vespasian! Even during his life a temple was erected to him at Colchester.


Nero Caesar

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
Nero was surely the most notorious Roman emperor of the first century, excelling both the insane Caligula and the paranoid Domitian in notoriety. He was also jealously vain in his proud appreciation of his own artistic talents. How could such a vain character neglect the opportunities afforded by the emperor cult? As a matter of historical record, he did not.

An inscription from Athens:
 “All powerful Nero Caesar Sebastos, a new Apollo.”

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
That Nero actually was worshiped is evident from inscriptions found in Ephesus in which he is called “Almighty God” and “Savior.” Reference to Nero as “God and Savior” is found in an inscription at Salamis, Cyprus. Indeed, “as his megalomania increased, the tendency to worship him as ruler of the world became stronger, and in Rome his features appeared on the colossus of the Sun near the Golden House, while his head was represented on the coinage with a radiate crown. … Regarding the imperial development of the emperor cult, Caligula (Gaius) and Nero “abandoned all reserve” in promoting emperor worship. In fact, “Caligula and Nero, the only two of the Julio-Claudians who were direct descendants of Augustus, demanded divine honors while they were still alive.” …

In A.D. 66 Tiridates, King of Armenia, approached Nero in devout and reverential worship, according to Roman historian Dio Cassius (A.D. 150-235):

Indeed, the proceedings of the conference were not limited to mere conversations, but a lofty platform had been erected on which were set images of Nero, and in the presence of the Armenians, Parthians, and Remans Tindates approached and paid them reverence then, after sacrificing to them and calling them by laudatory names, he took off the diadem from his head and set it upon them. … Tiridates publicly fell before Nero seated upon the rostra in the Forum: “Master, I am the descendant of Arsaces, brother of the kings Vologaesus and Pacorus, and thy slave. And I have come to thee, my god, to worship thee as I do Mithras. The destiny thou spinnest for me shall be mine; for thou art my Fortune and my Fate.”

By this action this king actually worshiped “the image of the Beast” (Rev. 13:15). … Dio Cassius notes also the fate of one senator who did not appreciate Nero’s “divine” musical abilities: “Thrasaea was executed because he failed to appear reguarly in the senate, . . . and because he never would listen to the emperor’s singing and lyre playing, nor sacrifice to Nero’s Divine Voice as did the rest.” This senator failed to worship the Beast and was executed. This reflects Revelation 13:15 which says “as many as do not worship the image of the beast” are “to be killed.” … When Nero returned to Rome from Greece in A.D. 68, he returned to the triumphant praise of the city as he entered the Palace and Apollo’s Temple on the Palatine. Dio Cassius records the scene thus: “The city was all decked with garlands, was ablaze with lights and reeking with incense, and the whole population, the senators themselves most of all, kept shouting in chorus: ‘Hail, Olympian Victor! Hail, Pythian Victor! Augustus! Augustus! Hail to Nero, our Hercules! Hail to Nero, our Apollo! The only Victor of the Grand Tour, the only one from the beginning of time! Augustus! August us! O, Divine Voice! Blessed are they that hear thee.’”

 

THE KINGS OF THE BEAST

Revelation 17:9
And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space.

“Seven mountains.” i.e., Rome is known as the City on Seven Hills.

“Five are fallen . . . .” i.e. Julius, Agustus, Tiberius, Gaius (Caligua), and Claudius.

“and one is.” i.e. Nero

“and the other is not yet come.” i.e. the Vespasian family reign, which includes Vespasian himself, and his two sons, who also sat as Emperors themselves: Titus and Domitian.

“he must continue a short space.” This is in reference to the destruction of A.D. 70, which Vespasian was a general of. But after Nero’s death, three other kings ruled within one year’s time, leaving the seat open for Vespasian, who took rule immediately, and left the destruction of Israel to his son, Titus. Therefore, when the eighth king comes (the household of Vespasian) he will continue for a short time in this prophesy, until the end of the age (in A.D. 70).


THE MARK OF THE BEAST (666 or 616?)
(Caesar Nero as the Main Beast, Part I)

Excerpt from an article entitled: “The Mark of the Beast – 666 or 616?” by Gary DeMar, Located at: http://www.americanvision.org/articlearchive/05-10-05.asp:
A fragment from the oldest surviving copy of the New Testament shows that the number of the Beast of Revelation 13 is 616. Ellen Aitken, a professor of early Christian history at McGill University, states that “the majority opinion seems to be that it refers to [the Roman emperor] Nero.” The early fragment supports the view that Revelation was written prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70, and whether the number is 666 or 616, the number IS a reference to Nero and not some end-time antichrist figure. Only time will tell how this discovery will affect dispensationalism. The first readers of Revelation were told to “calculate the number of the Beast, for the number is that of a man; and his number is six hundred and sixty-six” (13:18). Since Revelation was written to a first-century audience, we should expect the first-century readers to be able to calculate the number with relative ease and understand the result. They would have had few candidates from which to choose. Notice that the number is “six hundred and sixty-six, not three sixes.” Tim LaHaye misidentifies the number when he writes, “The plain sense of Scripture tells us that it comprises the numbers: six, six, six.” The three Greek letters that make up the number represent 600, 60, and 6. Ancient numbering systems used an alpha-numeric method. This is true of the Latin (Roman) system that is still common today: I=1, V=5, X=10, L=50, C=100, D=500, M=1000. Greek and Hebrew follow a similar method where each letter of their alphabets represents a number. The first nine letters represent 1–9. The tenth letter represents 10, with the nineteenth letter representing 100 and so on. Since the Book of Revelation is written in a Hebrew context by a Jew with numerous allusions to the Old Testament, we should expect the solution to deciphering the meaning of six hundred and sixty-six to be Hebraic. "The reason clearly is that, while [John] writes in Greek, he thinks in Hebrew, and the thought has naturally affected the vehicle of expression." When Nero Caesar's name is transliterated into Hebrew, which a first-century Jew would probably have done, he would have gotten Neron Kesar or simply nrwn qsr, since Hebrew has no letters to represent vowels. “It has been documented by archaeological finds that a first century Hebrew spelling of Nero's name provides us with precisely the value of 666. Jastrow's lexicon of the Talmud contains this very spelling.” When we take the letters of Nero's name and spell them in Hebrew, we get the following numeric values: n=50, r=200, w=6, n=50, q=100, s=60, r=200 = 666. “Every Jewish reader, of course, saw that the Beast was a symbol of Nero. And both Jews and Christians regarded Nero as also having close affinities with the serpent or dragon. . . . The Apostle writing as a Hebrew, was evidently thinking as a Hebrew. . . . Accordingly, the Jewish Christian would have tried the name as he thought of the name—that is in Hebrew letters. And the moment that he did this the secret stood revealed. No Jew ever thought of Nero except as ‘Neron Kesar.’” The fragment supports the reading of some Greek New Testament manuscripts that read 616 instead of 666. Why would someone making a copy of the Revelation scroll make such a number change? “Perhaps the change was intentional, seeing that the Greek form Neron Caesar written in Hebrew characters (nrwn qsr) is equivalent to 666, whereas the Latin form Nero Caesar (nrw qsr) is equivalent to 616.” A Latin copyist might have thought that 666 was an error because Nero Caesar did not add up to 666 when transliterated into Latin. He then changed 666 to 616 to conform to the Latin rendering since it was generally accepted that Nero was the Beast. In either case, a Hebrew transliteration nets 666, while a Latin spelling nets 616. Nero was the “man” and either 666 or 616 was his number.

An example of ancient numbering systems:
Greek inscription at the ancient city of Pompeii, which fell by volcano in A.D. 79.
“I love her whose number is 545.”

Greek graffiti on a Roman wall, during Nero’s own lifetime:
“Count the numerical values in of the letters in Nero’s name, And in “murdered his own mother,” you will find their sum is the same.

Robert Graves, English translator of Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars:
Numerals were expressed by letters; and in Greek the letters of Nero’s name, when converted into numerals, had the aggregate value of 1005; and so had the letters of “murdered his own mother.”

It’s interesting to note that in Hebrew numerical value, we understand that six hundred and sixty six is associated with a Beast; in Latin we understand that six hundred and sixteen is also associated with a Beast; and in Greek, one thousand and five are associated with a murderer. The devil is known as a murderer, even from the very beginning (St. John 8:44), and the devil is also known as the Beast in modern churches. Any way you look at it, Nero was a Beast, a murderer, and a devil.

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
In addition, Christian writings often employed gematric riddles. The ancient Christian Sibylline Oracles has Jesus’ name as equivalent to “888” and makes use of number values to indicate initials of various Remap emperors, including Nero. When John, then, gave a numerical value as a partial concealment of the name of the Beast (Rev. 13:18), he was engaging in a common practice in his day. If we could decipher the name hidden in the number, we could point to the identity of the Beast. As we seek to learn the identity of 666, we must recall the several principles of interpretation which we listed in Chapter 1. Those principles were: (1) The name-number 666 must be “that of a man” (Rev. 3: 18b). (2) The name must be one of John’s contemporaries. (3) The name must be that of someone relevant to the first century Christians to whom John wrote. (4) The name must be that of someone of an evil and blasphemous nature. (5) He must also be a political figure possessing great authority (Rev. 13:2, 7) ... Based on what we know of Nero’s character and actions, he fits easily within the parameters of the textually derived principles stated above … We have seen that the Greek spelling of Nero’s name has the value 1005. A Hebrew spelling of his name was Nrwn Qsr (pronounced: Neron Kaiser). It has been documented by archaeological finds that a first century Hebrew spelling of Nero’s name provides us with precisely the value of 666. Jastrow’s lexicon of the Talmud contains this very spelling … Is it not remarkable that this most relevant emperor has a name that fits precisely the required sum? Is this sheer historical accident? … the number 666 in some ancient manuscripts of Scripture is actually changed to 616. But why? Was it changed accidentally, or on purpose? … As textual scholars agree, it must be intentional. But again we ask, Why? … John, a Jew, used a Hebrew spelling of Nero’s name in order to arrive at the figure 666. But when Revelation began circulating among those less acquainted with Hebrew, a well-meaning copyist who knew the meaning of 666 might have intended to make its deciphering easier by altering it to 616. It surely is no mere coincidence that 616 is the numerical value of “Nero Caesar,” when spelled in Hebrew by transliterating it from its more common Latin spelling. Such a conjecture would satisfactorily explain the rationale for the divergence: so that the non-Hebrew mind might more readily discern the identity of the Beast.

Bruce Metzger, president of the New Revised Standard Version panel:
“Perhaps the change was intentional, seeing that the Greek form Neron Caesar written in Hebrew characters (nrwn qsr) is equivalent to 666, whereas the Latin form Nero Caesar (nrw qsr) is equivalent to 616.”

 

WAS NERO REALLY THE MAIN BEAST?
(Caesar Nero as the Main Beast, Part II)

Revelation 13:1-9
And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, AND HIS MOUTH AS THE MOUTH OF A LION: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority. And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast. And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him? And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue FORTY AND TWO MONTHS (3 ½ years). And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle [Herod’s Temple], and them that dwell in [both first and second] heaven. AND IT WAS GIVEN UNTO HIM TO MAKE WAR WITH THE SAINTS, AND TO OVERCOME THEM: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations. And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. If any man have an ear, let him hear.

Apollonius of Tyana (Philosopher, born in 4 B.C.):
"commonly called a Tyrant": "In my travels, which have been wider than ever man yet accomplished, I have seen many, many wild beasts of Arabia and India; BUT THIS BEAST, that is commonly called a Tyrant, I know not how many heads it has, nor if it be crooked of claw, and armed with horrible fangs. . . . And of wild beasts you cannot say that they were ever known to eat their own mothers, but Nero has gorged himself on this diet." (Philostratus, Life of Apollonius 38. Cited in John A. T Robinson, Redating the New Testamsnt (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976), p. 235, from J. S. Phillimore (Oxford, 1912) 2:38.)

Tacitus (Latin Historian, (ca. 56 – ca. 117):
“Consequently, to get rid of the report [that he started a great fire in Rome], Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus [i.e. Christ], from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular. Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all who pleaded guilty; then, upon their information, an immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired. Nero offered his gardens for the spectacle, and was exhibiting a show in the circus, while he mingled with the people in the dress of a charioteer or stood aloft on a car. Hence, even for criminals who deserved extreme and exemplary punishment, there arose a feeling of compassion; for it was not, as it seemed, for the public good, but to glut one man's cruelty, that they were being destroyed."

Pliny the Elder (contemporary of Nero; died in the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79):
"Marcus Agrippa is said to have been born in this manner [i.e., breech position], almost the solitary instance of a successful career among all those so born – although he too is deemed to have paid the penalty which his irregular birth foretold, by a youth made unhappy by lameness, a lifetime passed amidst warfare and ever exposed to the approach of death, by the misfortune caused to the world by his whole progeny but especially due to his two daughters who became the mothers of the emperors Gaius Caligula and Domitius Nero, the two firebrands of mankind. . . . Nero also, who was emperor shortly before and whose entire rule showed him the enemy of mankind." (Pliny, Natural History 7:45.)

Suetonius (Latin historical writer, born in A.D. 69):
“Although at first his acts of wantonness, lust, extravagance, avarice and cruelty were gradual and secret, and might be condoned as follies of youth, yet even then their nature was such that no one doubted that they were defects of character and not due to his time of life. No sooner was twilight over than he would catch up a cap or a wig and go to the taverns or range about the streets playing pranks, which however were very far from harmless; for he used to beat men as they came home from dinner, stabbing any who resisted him and throwing them into the sewers…Little by little, however, as his vice grew stronger, he dropped jesting and secrecy and with no attempt at disguise openly broke out into worse crime…Besides abusing freeborn boys and seducing married women, he debauched the vestal virgin Rubria. The freedwoman Acte he all but made his lawful wife, after bribing some ex-consuls to perjure themselves by swearing that she was of royal birth. He castrated the boy Sporus and actually tried to make a woman of him; and he married him with all the usual ceremonies, including a dowry and a bridal veil, took him to his house attended by a great throng, and treated him as his wife. And the witty jest that some made is still current, that it would have been well for the world if Nero’s father Domitius had had that kind of wife. This Sporus, decked out with the finery of the empresses and riding in a litter, he took with him to the assizes and marts of Greece, and later at Rome through the Street of Images, fondly kissing him from time to time. That he even desired a sexual relationship with his own mother, and was kept from it by her enemies, who feared that such a relationship might give the reckless and insolent woman too great influence, was notorious, especially after he added to his concubines a courtesan who was said to look very like Agrippina. Even before that, so they say, whenever he rode in a litter with his mother, he had incestuous relations with her, which were betrayed by the stains on his clothing….He so prostituted his own chastity that after defiling almost every part of his body, he at last devised a kind of game, in which, covered with the skin of some wild animal, he was let loose from a cage and attacked the private parts of men and women, who were bound to stakes, and when he had sated his mad lust, was finished off by his freedman Doryphorus; for he was even married to this man in the same way that he himself had taken Sporus, going so far as to imitate the cries and lamentations of a maiden being deflowered.”

St. Jerome, late 300’s A.D.:
“Nero was the first of the emperors who showed himself an enemy of the divine religion.”

Orosius, Paulus (early fifth century):
"He (Nero, by context) was the first at Rome to torture and inflict the penalty of death upon Christians, and he ordered them throughout all the provinces to be afllicted with like persecution; and in his attempt to wipe out the very name, he killed the most blessed apostles of Christ, Peter and Paul." (The Seven Books of History Against the Pagans 7:7.)

Clement of Rome (A.D. 30 – 100), 1st Clement:
By the hands of Nero, Christians suffered “through many indignities and tortures” and endured “cruel and unholy insults.”

Mosheim:
"Foremost in the rank of those emperors, on whom the church looks back with horror as her persecutors, stands Nero … The dreadful persecution [of the Christians] which took place by order of this tyrant, commenced at Rome about the middle of November, in the year of our Lord 64. . . . This dreadful persecution ceased but with the death of Nero. The empire, it is well known, was not delivered from the tyranny of this monster until the year 68, when he put an end to his own life." (Historical Commentaries, I:138,139).
Augustine (4th Century)
"What means the declaration, that the mystery of iniquity already works?... Some suppose this to be spoken of the Roman emperor, and therefore Paul did not speak in plain words, because he would not incur the charge of calumny for having spoken evil of the Roman emperor: although he always expected that what he had said would be understood as applying to Nero." (quoted by Stuart in Apocalypse)
Clement of Alexandria [Early Church Father] (2nd Century)
"We have still to add to our chronology the following, -- I mean the days which Daniel indicates from the desolation of Jerusalem, the seven years and seven months of the reign of Vespasian. For the two years are added to the seventeen months and eighteen days of Otho, and Galba, and Vitellius; and the result is three years and six months, which is "the half of the week," as Daniel the prophet said. For he said that there were two thousand three hundred days from the time that the abomination of Nero stood in the holy city, till its destruction. For thus the declaration, which is subjoined, shows: "How long shall be the vision, the sacrifice taken away, the abomination of desolation, which is given, and the power and the holy place shall be trodden under foot? And he said to him, Till the evening and morning, two thousand three hundred days, and the holy place shall be taken away. These two thousand three hundred days, then, make six years four months, during the half of which Nero held sway, and it was half a week; and for a half, Vespasian with Otho, Galba, and Vitellius reigned. And on this account Daniel says, "Blessed is he that cometh to the thousand three hundred and thirty-five days." For up to these days was war, and after them it ceased. And this number is demonstrated from a subsequent chapter, which is as follows: "And from the time of the change of continuation, and of the giving of the abomination of desolation, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and thirty-five days." " (The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, p. 334)
Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989
The Beast’s “war with the saints” — i.e., the Neronic persecution – was: (1) the first such “war,” (2) contemporary with John’s life, (3) relevant to the first century Christians, and (4) could not be overlooked.

Philip Schaff (church historian):
the Neronian persecution was “the most cruel that ever occurred.”

Joel P. Green:
"How would John's first readers have understood these images?  Already in New Testament times, the emperor of Rome was increasingly seen not only as an agent of the gods, but as a god himself.  For many, the emperor was the deity who guaranteed sustenance and fulfillment in life.  Thus he was to be worshiped as a god.  This state of affairs constituted no small problem for Christians, who gave their highest allegiance to their Lord and who looked to him, not to the Roman emperor, for daily provision.  As this imperial religion developed further, the state would harass Christians more and more, pressing them to renounce Christ in favor of emperor worship.  In such a context, the beast from the sea would have symbolized the deified emperor.  His counterpart from the earth would have represented those persons - priests, philosophers, and the like - who promoted the imperial religion." (How to Read Prophecy, 76-77) "this is a political antichrist, the Roman emperor demanding divine adoration.  In claiming for himself the title Lord the emperor became for Christians a rival Christ, an antichrist." (How to Read Prophecy, 108)

Dr. James Kennedy, Jerry Newcomb:
"He had received the finest of pagan philosophical educations, and yet he degenerated into one of the worst conceivable men.  He visited brothels, frequently in disguise.  He practiced, as one historian says, "lewdness on boys... striking, wounding, mudering."  He took a mistress.  He wanted to have an affair with her and his wife objected.  What do you do in a case like that?  Well, it should be obvious to any and all: you simply kill your wife! -  Which is what he did.  But his mother objected.  So he killed his mother.  But he wasn't completely without feeling.  In fact, when he looked down on her corpse at her funeral he said, "I did not know I had so beautiful a mother.” And so he married his mistress.  Then one day she made the sad mistake of nagging him because he came home late from the races.  She was in the latter stages of pregnancy.  Nero kicked her in the stomach, killing both her and the child.  Keep in mind, this was the ruler of the world at that time!" (What if Jesus Had Never Been Born?, 160)

Pate, Haynes:
“Nero’s infamous character merits the title of “beast applied to him by the seer of the Apocalypse (v.1).  Revelation 13:1-6 gives the generic background of the beast, which is the roman empire of the first century,  The seven heads correspond to the seven hills of Rome, while the ten horns allude to the Caesars of the first century, however one may number them (v.1).  The blasphemous worship demanded by the beast distinctly reminds one of the imperial cult of the first century, and the war the beast wages on the saints cannot help but recall the intense persecutions Nero, and later Domitian, inflicted on Christians because they did not worship Caesar.  NERO’S PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIANS FROM NOVEMBER AD 64 TO JUNE AD 68 COULD ACCOUNT, IN PART, FOR THE FORTY-TWO MONTHS (OR 3 ½ YEARS) OF OPPRESSION MENTIONED IN REV. 13:5.  The reference in Revelation 13:11-15 to the beast of the land securing worship for the beast from the sea (Rome was across the sea from the place of the writing of the Apocalypse, Asia Minor) reminds one of the local priests of the imperial cult in Asia Minor whose task was to compel the people to offer a sacrifice to Caesar and proclaim him Lord.  Megalomaniac that he was, Nero had coins minted in which he was called “almighty God” and “Savior.”  Nero’s portrait also appears on coins as the god Apollo playing a lyre.  While earlier emperors were proclaimed deities upon their deaths, Nero abandons all reserve and demanded divine honors while still alive (as did also Caligula before him, AD 37-41).  Those who worshipped the emperor received a certificate or mark of approval – charagma, the same word used in Revelation 13:16.  Furthermore, in the reign of Emperor Decius (AD 249-251), those who did not possess the certificate of sacrifice to Caesar couldn not pursue trades, a prohibition that conceivably goes back to Nero, reminding one of Revelation 13:17”  (C Martin Pate and Calvin B. Haynes, Doomsday Delusions, 41-42)

Hank Hanegraaff (2004):
"John is saying to his readers that with wisdom and understanding they could discern the number of the Beast and the number of his name.  If, in fact, the Beast was not around at that time, he would be have been giving them false information.. The beast is singularly Nero." (Voice of Reason 11/21) "No one can be worse than Nero.  It's not only because he violated every one of the Ten Commandments. He personified evil about as well as anyone can personify evil, and it absolutely  befuddles me when I hear people like Tim LaHaye refer to him as if he were some sort of eccentric character that lived in the past.    Nothing could be farther from the truth..   the reason that its the mother of all tribulations is because the persecution took place against the very foundation of the Christian Church.  Paul, and Peter, for example, die at the hands of Nero." (BAM 11/22/4)

Philip Schaff (A.D. 1877):
"the Neronian persecution [was] the most cruel that ever occurred" (History of the Christian Church, 8 vols. [Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, (1910) 1950] 1 :386). Nero's mother, Agrippina the younger, daughter of Germanicus and of Agrippina the elder, was assassinated at Nero's command in 60 a.d. in her villa on Lake Lucrine, after an unsuccessful attempt to drown her in a boat so constructed as to break to pieces while she was sailing in it on the lake. His younger brother Britannicus was poisoned by his order at a banquet in 55 a.d. His first wife Octavia was divorced in order that he might marry Poppaea, the wife of his friend Otho, and was afterward put to death. Poppaea herself died from the effects of a kick given her by Nero while she was with child."  (footnote to Eusebius, #291) We learn from Tacitus, Ann. XV. 39, that Nero was suspected to be the author of the great Roman conflagration, which took place in 64 a.d. (Pliny, H. N. XVII. I, Suetonius, 38, and Dion Cassius LXII. 18, state directly that he was the author of it), and that to avert this suspicion from himself he accused the Christians of the deed, and the terrible Neronian persecution which Tacitus describes so fully was the result. Gibbon, and in recent times especially Schiller (Geschichte der Römischen Kaiserzeit unter der Regierung des Nero, p. 584 sqq.), have maintained that Tacitus was mistaken in calling this a persecution of Christians, which was rather a persecution of the Jews as a whole. But we have no reason for impeaching Tacitus' accuracy in this case, especially since we remember that the Jews enjoyed favor with Nero through his wife Poppaea. What is very significant, Josephus is entirely silent in regard to a persecution of his countrymen under Nero. We may assume as probable (with Ewald and Renan) that it was through the suggestion of the Jews that Nero's attention was drawn to the Christians, and he was led to throw the guilt upon them, as a people whose habits would best give countenance to such a suspicion, and most easily excite the rage of the populace against them. This was not a persecution of the Christians in the strict sense, that is, it was not aimed against their religion as such; and yet it assumed such proportions and was attended with such horrors that it always lived in the memory of the Church as the first and one of the most awful of a long line of persecutions instituted against them by imperial Rome, and it revealed to them the essential conflict which existed between Rome as it then was and Christianity."  (footnote to Eusebius, #307)

F.W. Farrar (A.D. 1882):
"all the earliest Christian writers on the Apocalypse, from Irenaeus down to Victorious of Pettau and Commodian in the fourth, and Andreas in the fifth, and St. Beatus in the eighth century, connect Nero, or some Roman emperor, with the Apocalyptic Beast ." (p.541) "the clue is preserved for us, not only by Jewish Talmudists, and Pagan historians and authors, such as Tacitus, Suetonius, Dion Cassius, and Dion Chrysostom; but also by Christian fathers like St. Irenaeus, Lactantius, St. Victorinus, Sulpicius Severus, and the Sibylline books, and even by St. Jerome, and by St. Augustine. Nothing can prove more decisively than these references that for four centuries many Christians identified Nero with the Beast." "It is probable that this silence is in itself the result of the terrible scenes in which the apostles perished. It was indispensable to the safety of the whole community that the books of the Christians, when given up by the unhappy weakness of 'traditores,' or discovered by the keen malignity of informers, should contain no compromising matter. But how would it have been possible for St. Luke to write in a manner otherwise than compromising, if he had detailed the horrors of the Neronian persecution?  It is a reasonable conjecture that the sudden close of the Acts of the Apostles may have been due to the impossibility of speaking without indignation and abhorrence of the Emperor and the Government, which, between A.D. 64 and 68, sanctioned the infliction upon innocent men and women, of atrocities which excited the pity of the very Pagans. The Jew and the Christians who entered on such themes, could only do so under the disguise of a cryptograph, hiding his meaning from all but the initiated few, in such prophetic symbols as those of the Apocalypse. In that book alone we are enabled to hear the cry of horror which Nero's brutal cruelties wrung from Christian hearts." ("The Early Days of Christianity," vol. 2. pp. 82, 83) "Beyond all shadow of doubt or uncertainty, the Wild Beast from the sea is meant as a symbol of the emperor Nero. Here, at any rate, St. John has neglected no single means by which he could make his meaning clear without deadly peril to himself and the Christian Church. He describes this Wild Beast by no less than sixteen distinctive marks, and then all but tells us in so many words the name of the person whom it is intended to symbolize."   (Early Days of Christianity, 5.28.5)

James Stuart Russell:
"It is with great satisfaction that he finds himself in substantial agreement with the distinguished ecclesiastical historian and theologian, Dr. Dollinger, of Munich, in his interpretation of St. Paul's prediction in 2 Thessalonians. (1) Dr. Dollinger distinctly identifies the "Man of Sin" with Nero, a conclusion now so generally accepted by the highest authorities, that it may be regarded as a settled point. (2) He clearly distinguishes between the "Man of Sin" and "the Apostasy," so frequently confounded by the mass of interpreters.  Dollinger shows that the former is a person, the latter a heresy. (3) He recognizes "the Beast" of the Apocalypse as the Emperor, and therefore identical with the "Man of Sin." (4) The miracles wrought by the "Second Beast" (the Beast from the earth) he regards as a representation derived from our Lord's prophecy on the Mount of Olives." (The Parousia, afterword)

 

THE REVIVAL OF THE BEAST

Revelation 13:3
And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast. [10] He that leadeth into captivity [this beast] shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword [the beast] must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints. [14b] … that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live.

Wounded to death … must be killed with the sword …

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
With the death of Nero, the Julio-Claudian line of emperors perished from the earth. In other words, the Roman Empire’s founding family vanished from rule. The blood line that had given birth to, extended, stabilized, brought prosperity to, and had received worship from the Roman Empire was suddenly cut off forever. In superstitious, pagan fashion, Suetonius notes that “many portents” foreshadowed the tragedy that was to be, i.e. that “the race of the Caesars ended with Nero.” This was a grave and serious matter to the Roman Empire.

Had the wound by a sword

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
Catastrophe upon catastrophe followed the death of Nero and the extinction of the JuIian line. Immediately, the Roman Empire was hurled into civil wars of great ferocity and dramatic proportions. In fact, the civil wars almost destroyed the empire, seriously threatening to reduce “eternal Rome” to rubble. The peril Rome faced and the upheaval that shook the empire were well known in that era. As Josephus notes of these Roman civil wars: “I have omitted to give an exact account of them, because they are well known by all, and they are described by a great number of Greek and Roman authors.”

Tacitus (A.D. 56-117), writing about what happened after Nero’s death:
“The history on which I am entering is that of a period rich in disasters, terrible with battles, torn by civil struggles, horrible even in peace. Four emperors failed by the sword [Nero, A.D. 54-68, Galba, A.D. 68-69, Otho, A.D. 69, Vitellius, A.D. 69]; there were three civil wars, more foreign wars and often both at the same time. There was success w in the East, misfortune in the West … Britain subdued and immediately let go. The Sarmatae and Suebi rose against us … even the Parthians were almost roused to arms through the trickery of a pretended Nero. Moreover, Italy was distressed by disasters unknown before or returning after the lapse of ages. Cities of the rich fertile shores of Campania were swallowed up or overwhelmed; Rome was devastated by conflagrations, in which her most ancient shrines were consumed and the very Capitol fired by citizens’ hands. Sacred rites were defiled; there were adulteries in high places. The sea was filled with exiles, its cliffs made foul with the bodies of the dead. In Rome there was more awful cruelty. . . . Besides the manifold misfortunes that befell mankind, there were prodigies in the sky and on the earth, warnings given by thunderbolts, and prophecies of the future, both joyful and gloomy, uncertain and clear. For never was it more fully proved by awful disasters of the Roman people or by indubitable signs that gods care not for our safety, but for our punishment.

Suetonius (born A.D. 69), writing about what happened after Nero’s death:
And, as if that were insufficient warning, a thunderbolt presently struck the Temple of the Caesars, decapitated all the statues at a stroke and dashed Augustus’ scepter [symbol of royal power] from his hands.

Shall go into captivity

Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars 6:48, speaking of Nero running for his life:
"He [Nero] said that all he wanted was some secluded spot where he could hide and collect himself … Nero was in his tunic and barefooted; but he simply pulled on a faded cloak and hat, took horse and trotted off, holding a handkerchief over his face. Four servants were with him, including Sporus. Suddenly an earth-tremor was felt and lightening flashed in their eyes, which terrified Nero. Then from a nearby camp soldiers began shouting about the defeat which Galba [the next Emperor] would inflict on him [Nero]. He heard one man exclaim as they passed: “Those people are in pursuit of the Emperor.”

Even though in pursuit, Nero was never led into captivity by his pursuers, even though they almost succeeded, but his death by his own hands happened first. His captivity, therefore, in which he was forced into, was his death by his own hands, as was foretold to him in a dream:

Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars 6:46:
“The implications of auspices, of omens old and new, and of his own dreams, began to terrify Nero. In the past he had never known what it was to dream, but after killing his mother he dreamed that he was steering a ship and that someone tore the tiller from his hands. Next, his wife Octavia pulled him down into thick darkness, where hordes of winged ants swarmed over him. Then the statues of the nations, which had been dedicated to the theatre of Pompey, began to hem him in and prevent him from getting away; while his favorite Asturian horse turned into an ape, or all except the head, which whinnied a tune. Finally, the doors of the *Mausoleum opened by themselves and a voice from inside called: ‘Enter, Nero!’”

*Mausoleum, from Webster’s unabridged Dictionary
1. A stately and magnificent tomb. 2. The tomb erected at Halicarnassus in Asia Minor in 350 B.C., one of the seven wonders of the world.

Thus, he was led into captivity of death, foretold to him by a dream – just as he had led so many into captivity to death by his own sword – i.e., his command to put people to death – including Peter and Paul.

Had the wound by a sword (continued), considering the terrible state Rome was left in after Nero’s death, and from which wound Rome almost died

Josephus, Wars of the Jews:
“And as this sorrow of his was violent, he [General Vespasian – later to be a new Caesar] was not able to support the torments he was under, nor to apply himself further in other wars when his native country was laid waste.” [11:5] “about this time it was that heavy
calamities came about Rome on all sides.” “The Roman government [was] in a great internal disorder, by the continual changes of its rulers, and [the Germans] understood that every part of the habitable earth under them was in an unsettled and tottering condition.” “the state of the Romans was so ill.”

And his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast. … that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live.

Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars 10:1:
“The empire, which for a long time had been unsettled and, as it were, drifting through the usurpation and violent death of three emperors, was at last taken in hand and given stability by the Flavian family [i.e. Vespasian, Titus and Domitian].”

Josephus, Wars of the Jews:
“So upon this confirmation of Vespasian’s entire government, which was now settled, and upon the unexpected deliverance of the public affairs of the Romans from ruin, Vespasian turned his thoughts to what remained unsubdued in Judea.”

James Moffatt, regarding Revelation 13:3:
“The allusion is . . . to the terrible convulsions which in 69 A.D. shook the empire to its foundations. Nero’s death with the bloody interregnum after it, was a wound to the State, from which it only recovered under Vespasian. It fulfilled the tradition of the wounded head. . . . The vitality of the pagan empire, shown in this power of righting itself after the revolution, only added to its prestige.”

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
The relevant verses in Revelation regarding the death and revivification of the Beast can properly be understood as prophesying the earth-shaking historical events of the late A.D. 60’s era. Rome died, as it were, and returned again to life.


THE SEVENTH AND EIGHTH KING

In consideration of our journey, when we covered the first six kings (Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero), we must note that two kings remain in prophesy. The most famous of all Roman Emperors are these first six mentioned, who are of the true Caesar lineage; and with the death of Nero, it marked the end of that royal family line. What followed within that one to two year period was really ONE EVENT, even though it flew quickly through three kings (Galba, Otho, andVitellius). Therefore, the seventh king was actually the KINGSHIP through this troublesome year of 69 A.D., when Rome was tottering to its utter ruin. Therefore with the eighth king, the Vespasian lineage (which lasted through Vespasian, and his two sons Titus and Domitian), the kingdom was finally restored to its former glory, and the whole world wandered after the beast.

Kenneth Gentry, The Beast of Revelation, 1989:
The number eight is the number of resurrection. The eighth day is the beginning of a new week. Thus, Jesus was resurrected on the first or eighth day (John 20:1). This reestablishment of the Roman Empire under Vespasian offers a new beginning (the Julio-Claudian line was gone) and a revival of the Roman Empire, which had been through death throes. That recovery will come shortly after the demise of the original seven when an eighth arises.

 

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CATASTROPHIES LEADING UP TO A.D. 70

 

File:Rembrandt Christ in the Storm on the Lake of Galilee.jpg 

FAMINES & EARTHQUAKES

Matthew 24:7
For nation [Rome] shall rise against nation [Israel], and kingdom [Rome] against kingdom [Israel]: and there shall be famines [great hunger], and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers [many] places [i.e. all over the known world].

Were these events fulfilled before 70 A.D.?

Josephus – The Wars of the Jews – Book 6: Chapter 3: Section 3
“Moreover, their hunger was so intolerable, that it obliged them to chew everything, while they gathered such things as the most sordid animals would not touch, and endured to eat them; nor did they at length abstain from girdles and shoes; and the very leather which belonged to their shields they pulled off and gnawed.”

Josephus – The Wars of the Jews – Book 6: Chapter 3: Section 4
”So those that were thus distressed by the famine were very desirous to die; and those already dead were esteemed happy, because they had not live long enough either to hear or see such miseries.”

Acts 11:27-28
And in these days came prophets from Jerusalem unto Antioch. And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth* throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar [i.e. A.D. 41-54].

Strong’s Greek Dictionary
*Dearth: Limos: Word Origin: Greek, Noun Masculine, Strong #: 3042
scarcity of harvest, famine.

Acts 16:26
And suddenly there was a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken: and immediately all the doors were opened, and every one's bands were loosed.

Tacitus, the Annals, BOOK XII, A.D. 48-54
Several prodigies occurred in that year. Birds of evil omen perched on the Capitol; houses were thrown down by frequent shocks of earthquake, and as the panic spread, all the weak were trodden down in the hurry and confusion of the crowd. Scanty crops too, and consequent famine were regarded as a token of calamity.

Tacitus, The Annals, BOOK XII, A.D. 48-54
“Apamea, too, which had been shaken by an earthquake, had its tribute remitted for five years.”

Tacitus, Histories 1:2-3, concerning events that took place between 68 and 69 A.D.
“The history on which I am entering is that of a period rich in disasters, terrible with battles, torn by civil struggles, horrible even in peace. Four emperors failed by the sword [Nero, A.D. 54-68, Galba, A.D. 68-69, Otho, A.D. 69, Vitellius, A.D. 69]; there were three civil wars, more foreign wars and often both at the same time. There was success in the East, misfortune in the West … Britain subdued and immediately let go. The Sarmatae and Suebi rose against us … even the Parthians were almost roused to arms through the trickery of a pretended Nero. Moreover, Italy was distressed by disasters unknown before or returning after the lapse of ages. Cities of the rich fertile shores of Campania were swallowed up or overwhelmed; Rome was devastated by conflagrations, in which her most ancient shrines were consumed and the very Capitol fired by citizens’ hands. Sacred rites were defiled; there were adulteries in high places. The sea was filled with exiles, its cliffs made foul with the bodies of the dead. In Rome there was more awful cruelty. . . . Besides the manifold misfortunes that befell mankind, there were prodigies in the sky and on the earth, warnings given by thunderbolts, and prophecies of the future, both joyful and gloomy, uncertain and clear. For never was it more fully proved by awful disasters of the Roman people or by indubitable signs that gods care not for our safety, but for our punishment.

Tacitus, The Annals, BOOK XII, A.D. 48-54
One of the famous cities of Asia, Laodicea, was that same year overthrown by an earthquake, and, without any relief from us, recovered itself by its own resources.

Revelation 3:14-16
And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God; I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would thou wert cold or hot. So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth.

Seneca, Epistulae Morales (writing in 65AD)
“How often have cities in Asia, how often in Achaia, been laid low by a single shock of earthquake! How many towns in Syria, how many in Macedonia, have been swallowed up! How often has this kind of devastation laid Cyprus in ruins! How often has Paphos collapsed! Not infrequently are tidings brought to us of the utter destruction of entire cities.”

Commentary on Philostratos, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana IV.34
“The earthquake mentioned by Philostratus as affecting the site of Lebena in his account of the life of Apollonius of Tyana has been variously dated within the course of the 1st cent. A.D. In recent times the most popular hypotheses set the the available sources, that the visit of Apollonius to the Asclepieion of Lebena, and the subsequent earthquake, are to be dated to 66 A.D.”

Eusebius, historical Christian writer in the A.D. 300’s: History of the Church, 5:4a
But the number of calamities which everywhere fell upon the nation at that time; the extreme misfortunes to which the inhabitants of Judea were especially subjected, the thousands of men, as well as women and children, that perished by the sword, by famine, and by other forms of death innumerable -all these things, as well as the many great sieges which were carried on against the cities of Judea, and the excessive sufferings endured by those that fled to Jerusalem itself, as to a city of perfect safety, and finally the general course of the whole war, as well as its particular occurrences in detail…

 

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CLICK HERE for Plot Details, and to Read the Introduction and First Three Chapters!

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READ WHAT OTHERS HAVE TO SAY ABOUT DONAREE:

"Nicely done. I really enjoyed the history in the introduction and the duel is well written. Best of luck with the novel!" ~ Author David Lee Summers, author of five books: Vampires of the Scarlet Order, The Solar Sea, and the "Old Star" science fiction series: The Pirates of Sufiro, Children of the Old Stars, and Heirs of the New Earth. www.davidleesummers.com

"Very exciting read! Felt like I was there witnessing the action!" ~ Candle Artist Jfay,
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"I really enjoyed the humour and really laughed, not at Monsieur de la Donaree but with Monsieur de la Donaree! I dont know if you wrote it in this spirit but if you had a bit of Molière in you, I would not be surprised! He knew how to study people and would turn situations into a comic play! I laughed out loud, this is a gem! Not only de la Donaree is a fine sword, he has also a fine nose when it comes to pinpoint personalities, I'm talking about the Inkeeper and his situation with the wife here!! The second part is indeed in pure swashbuckling spirit, in rhythm and enthusiasm! And the end is a cliff-hanger! The beginning is "cocasse" (funny) as they might have said then in Gascony, and witty! Indeed Alexandre Dumas had a sense of humour too and satirically created at least one of his character ( in another book) to a character made up by Molière in one of his comic play. And Molière also took his inspiration from Dumas' s Musketeers and "The Man in the Iron Mask." I liked it! I had fun while reading this chapter about Monsieur de la Donaree, as while following the spirit of the Musketeers you gave a contemporary touch to the text!" ~ Artist Nicole Marques,
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"Hurrah, Ted! I gleefully await the next installment! LOVE the romantic stuff! Bring it on! There are few things in this world I like better than a hot Viscount. Keep going, Ted! Bravo! Keep writing! I can't wait to read more! But it is par for the course as I am also a writer. Keep in touch!" ~ Author Genella de Grey, author of "Remember Me."
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"Wow - What a wonderful beginning. As a whole, you have a unique way of writing & you captivated me by a few sentences peaking my interest to continue. For instance: ...hazed by the early morning mist...I love it! I look forward to reading the next chapter. You've gained my interest. That was impresive & informative. You've still got the hook in & I'm dangling to hear more. Thanks for the sneak peak." ~ Aspiring Author R.F.Taylor: Rianna

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